RRB NTPC EXAM -2016: Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-2

RRB NTPC EXAM -2016: Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-2
RRB NTPC EXAM -2016: Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-2
  •    Sangam literature is compiled in 8 books. They are—(1) Narune, (2) Kuruntoge, (3) Aigunuru, (4) Padirupyuttu, (5) Paripadal, (6) Karlittorga, (7) Nedultoge, (8) Purnanuru.
  •    In the Sangam age, the Tamil Grammar was written in a detailed book, ‘Tolakappiyam’.
  •    With the songs of the musicians, the dancers known as Panar and Widelier used to dance.
  •    Pedinekilkanku is a famous composition of Sangam literature.
  •    Sangam is a Sanskrit word meaning a Congregation and a Council.
  •    The main theme of the Sangam literature is ‘Romance’ (Shringar) and heroism (Veergatha). Shringar is called as ‘Aham’ and Veergatha has been called as ‘Puram’.
  •    The first Sangam was organized at Madurai under the chairmanship of Rishi Agastya.
  •    The second Sangam was organized at Kapatpuram again under the chairmanship of Rishi Agastya.
  •    The third Sangam was organized at Madurai and it was chaired by ‘Nakkirar’.
  •    Avey was the family of Sangam age which meant Sabha (assembly).
  •    Panchvaram was the assembly of the advisors of the King of Sangam age.
  •    Ur was the institution which looked after the city administration.
  •   The excavation of Arikmedu, provide enough evidence to prove that once opon a time, the cantonements of the Roman traders resided there.
  •    The teachers in the Sangam age were called as Kanakkaters.
  •    The students in the Sangam age were called Bhanwan or Pillai.
  •    Parshvanath arranged for fourfold vows (Chaturvrata) for the Bhikshus (monks)—(1) I shall not kill the living beings, (2) I shall always speak the truth, (3) I shall not steal, (4) I shall not keep any property.
  •    Mahavir Swami has been called Nigashtha, Naatputra and Nirgranth Saatputra.
  •    Mahavir Swami left his mortal frame and attained Nirvana at Pawapuri near Patna in Bihar.
  •    The Triratna in Jainism are described as Samyak Shraddha (veneration), Samyak Gyan (knowledge) and Samyak Acharana (conduct).
  •    According to Jainism, Nirvana (redemption) to free the soul from the physical bondage.
  •    Mahavir Swami has described five vows for the common people which are called as Panchmaha-vrat. These are—Truth, Non-violence, No stealing, No collection of wealth or anything and celibacy (Satya, Ahimsa, Astey, Aparigrah and Brahamacharya). To these was later added, ‘Not to eat at Night’.
  •    Kaivalya is total knowledge which the Nirgranthget.
  •    Buddha was born in the Lumbini forest, 14 km beyond Kapilvastu in Nepal Tarai.
  •    Kaundinya, a Brahmin astrologer, was contemporary of Buddha.
  •    Gautam obtained knowledge at Gaya. Hence the place is called Bodh Gaya.
  •    The first sermon of Buddha is known as ‘Dharma Chakra Pravartan’.
  •    Mahatma Buddha delivered his first sermon at Rishipattan (Sarnath).
  •    The followers of Buddha were divided into four sections—(1) Bhikshu or the monks, (2) Bhik-shuni or lady monks, (3) Upasaks or devotees, (4) Upasikas or lady devotees.
  •    After delivering his teachings for constant 45 years, Mahatma Buddha attained Mahaparinirvan at the age of 80 at Kushinara (Kushinagar).
  •    Tripitaks are—(1) Vinay Pitak, (2) Suttpitak, (3) Abhidhamma Pitak.
  •    Vinay Pitak is divided into 3 sections—(1) Sutta Vibhag, (2) Khandhak, (3) Pariwar.
  •    Suttpitak contains—Diggh Nikay, Majjhim Nikay, Anguttar Nikay and Khuddak Nikay.
  •    In Abhidhamma Pitak, philosophical and spiritual thoughts are contained.
  •    There are seven treatises of Abhidhamma Pitak —(1) Dhamma Sangeeti, (2) Vibhang, (3) Dhatu Katha, (4) Puggal Panjati, (5) Katha Vastu, (6) Yamak, (7) Patthan.
  •    The eightfold paths are—(1) Right belief, (2) Right thought, (3) Right speech, (4) Right action, (5) Right means of livelihood, (6) Right execution, (7) Right remembrance, (8) Right meditation.
  •    In Buddhism, the Astangikmarg (eight fold path) is classified as—(1) Praja Skandh, (2) Sheel Skandh, (3) Samadhi Skandh.
  •    Under Praja Skandh come—Samyak Drishti, Samyak Sankalp and Samyak Vani (speech).
  •    Under Sheel Skandh come—Samyak Karmant, Samyak Aajeev.
  •    Under Samadhi Skandh come—Samyak Vyayam, Samyak Smriti and Samyak Samadhi.
  •    Mahatma Buddha was silent on the existence of God or otherwise but he did not believe in the existence of soul.
  •    The first Buddhist Council was convened after a few years of Buddha’s death under the chairmanship of Mahakassap in Saptparna caves near Rajgrih.
  •    The second Buddhist Council was organized at Vaisali.
  •    The third Buddhist Council was convened at Patliputra during the regime of Asoka.
  •    The fourth Buddhist Council was convened at Kashmir during the regime of Kanishka.
  •    Purans are said to be 18 in number of which Bhagwat Puran is very renowned.
  •    Bhagwatism is mentioned for the first time in the Bhishm Parva of Mahabarat.
  •    The Dravida Vaishnav devotees are known as the Alwars.
  •    A Brahman named Kautilya or Chanakya played a significant role in the establishment of the Mauryan  empire.
  •    In the Greek writings, Chandra Gupta Maurya is called Sandrocottus.
  •    Arien and Plutarch have called him Androcottus.
  •    In the Mudra Rakshas written by Vishakhdutt, Chandra Gupta Maurya is called Chandragiri Chandrashree.
  •    In Buddhist literature, Mahavansh Tika is the book which throws ample light on the life of Chandra Gupta Maurya.
  •    ‘Indika’ was written by Megasthenese.
  •    In the book Mahavansh, Chandra Gupta Maurya is said to be Kshatriya by caste.
  •    After being defeated in war with Chandra Gupta, Selukose offered him Gadrosia (Baluchistan), Acrosia (Kandahar), Aria (Herat) and a part of Hindukush.
  •    Sudarshan Lake at Junagarh was built by Chandra Gupta Maurya.
  •    The Mahasthan inscription points out Chandra Gupta’s ascendancy over Bengal.
  •    The Rudradaman inscription of Girnar testifies to the suzerainty of Chandra Gupta over Saurashtra.
  •    According to Jain Texts, Chandra Gupta in the last years of his life, accepted Jainism and went to Mysore with the Jain monk Bhadrabahu.
  •    The empire of Chandra Gupta spread from Himalaya in the north to Mysore in the south; and from Bengal in the east to Baluchistan in the west. It covered Punjab, Sindh, Kashmir, Doab of Ganga and Yamuna, Magadh, Bengal, Malwa, Saurashtra and the region of Mysore.
  •   The administrative system of Chandra Gupta Maurya was Monarchy. In order to administer well, Chandra Gupta Maurya appointed a Council of Ministers.
  •    In the Mauryan age, the officer who collected the trade taxes was called Shulkadhyaksha.
  •    The Chairman of the Government services was known as Sutradhyaksha in the Mauryan age.
  •    The officer-in-charge of Weight and Measures was known as Peetadhyaksha in the Mauryan age.
  •    In Mauryan age, the officer who controlled the manufacture of wine, its sale and purchase and its consumption was Suradhyaksha.
  •    The chairman of the agricultural department was called Seetadhyaksha in Mauryan age.
  •    There were many officers such as Ganikadhyaksha,` Mudradhyaksha, Navadhyaksha, Ashwadhyaksha and Devtadhyaksha etc. in the Mauryan Age.
  •    The officer who kept the details of total income and expenditure of the State and decided the economic policy was called Sannidhata. Under him, worked officers like Treasurer and Shulkadhyaksha.
  •    In Mauryan age, the minister of factories and mines was called Karmantirak. His main task was to excavate different metals from the mines and look after the factories.
  •    In Mauryan age the Amatya of Fauzdari (Criminal) Court was called Pradeshta.
  •    The Amatya of the Civil Court was known as Vyavaharik.
  •    The Greek scholars have described the Amatyas as the seventh caste.
  •    The successor of Chandra Gupta Maurya is called name Bindusara in majority of the Puranas. Ceylonese works, Buddhist textsand in Deepvansh and Mahavansh. In Vayu Puran, his name is given as Bhadrasaar. In some of the Purans he is called as Varisaar. In the Chinese text—Fa-Uen-Chu-Lin, he is called as Bindupal. In another book Rajabalikatha, the successor and son of Chandra Gupta is called as Sinhasen.
  •    Ptolemy, the ruler of Egypt sent Dioniyas as his ambassador to the Court of Bindusaar.
  •    In Chandra Gupta Maurya’s time, the chief of the city was called Nagaradhyaksha who worked like the modern District Magistrate.
  •    The smallest unit of the administration was the village. Its chief officer was called Gramik or Gramani.
  •    Gramani was elected by the people of the village.
  •    In every village, there was an officer who was called Gram Bhojak.
  •    In the administration of Chandra Gupta Maurya the department of espionage was well organized. According to Kautilya, there were two sections of the secret service—(1) Sansthan, (2) Sancharan.
  •    In the inscriptions, Asoka is called Devanampriya and Priyadarshi.
  •    The Ceylonese sources and Deepvansh, call him, Priyadarshan and Priyadarshi. Scholars think that these were his titles.
  •    Asoka appointed an officer called Mahamatras in every city and district.
  •    In the 13th year of his reign, he appointed Dharma Mahamatra and Dharmayukta for the first time for the happiness and peace of his people.
  •   Upagupta was a Bauddhist monk of Mathura under his influence, Asoka changed his religion and accepted Buddhism.
  •    Asoka sent his daughter Sanghmitra and son Mahendra to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka.
  •    In the mini edicts Asoka calls himself a Buddha Shakya.
  •    Asoka sent Majjhantik to propogate Buddhism in Kashmir.
  •    In 1750, it was Teffenthaler who first explored the Asokan pillars.
  •    Asoka’s last edict was found by Beadon in 1915 at Maski.
  •    The small edicts of Asoka are of two types. According to Smith, they were written in 259-232 B.C.
  •    The first kind of Asokan small pillar edicts are available at Roopnath in Jabalpur district, Sahasaram in Shahabad district of Bihar, Maski, in Raichoor district, and Vairat in Rajasthan.
  •   The second type of Asokan edicts have been found at Siddhpur (Chitralahug, Mysore) Jatig, Rameshwar and Brahmagiri.
  •   The Bhabru edict was found at Bairath near Jaipur in Rajasthan. In this edict seven precepts of Buddhism have been given which Asoka liked most and he desired that the people should read them and make their conduct accordingly. This edict is preserved in Kolkata Museum.
  •    Two edicts about Kalinga have been found at Dhauli and Jaugarh. In these, the principles of behaviour with he people of Kalinga and with the frontier people have been outlined.
  •    Asokan small edicts have been found at about 15 places.
  •    The Erangudi edict was found in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh at a place known as Erangudi.
  •    The Maski small edict was found from Maski village of Raichoor district of Andhra Pradesh. It contains the name of Asoka.
  •    The Rajul Mandgiri edict was found on a mound 20 miles beyond Erangudi in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh.
  •    The Gurjara edict has been found from a village named Gurjara in Datia district of Madhya Pradesh. It also mentions the name of Asoka.
  •    Ahraura edict was found from a hill of the village Ahraura in Mirzapur district of U.P.
  •    Palgoraria edict was found in 1975.
  •    The Sannati inscription (edict) has been found in the village Sannati in the district of Gulbarga of Karnatic State.
  •    The cave inscription are three in number which have been found in the Barabar hills of Gaya city in Bihar. These refer to the charity performed by the King to the Ajivaks.
  •    The language of the Kandahar edict is Greek and Aramaic.
  •    The Topara pillar edict has been found from a village named Topara in Haryana. In the course of time Firoz Tughlaq brought it to Delhi where it is kept at Feroz Shah Kotla ground.
  •    Rumindei small pillar edict was found from the Tarai of Nepal.
  •    Most of Asokan edicts are written in Prakrit language.
  •    In Gupta age ships and boats were manufactured in large numbers. Gujarat, Bengal and Tamil Nadu were the main centres of cotton industry.
  •    Trade between India and China was carried on before Gupta age, in 2nd century.
  •    India had trade relations with eastern, countries. They were called Swarnabhumi (land of gold).
  •    Peshawar, Bharaunch, Ujjaini, Varanasi, Prayag, Patliputra, Mathura, Vaishali and Tamralipti were trade centres.
  •    In west Bharaunch and in east, Tamralipti were prominent ports.
  •    Gold, silver, bronze, tin, campher, dates and horses were imported.
  •    The collective unit of the people who worked in various industries, were known as ‘Kuliks’.
  •    ‘Kulik Nigam’ and ‘Shreshthi Nigam were the unions of wealthy traders. The Kulik Nigam had its own seal which was used in commercial correspondence and the trade-goods.
  •    In the Gupta age, India maintained trade relations with Arabia. Horses were imported from Arabia and Iran.
  •    The Seals of Kulik have been excavated from the town Meeta near Allahabad.
  •   From Vaishali 274 Seals of Sarthwah Kulik Nigam have been excavated prove that it was a great institution of the Gupta age.
  •    Trade with China, Japan and Sumatra was carried from the port of Tamralipti.
  •    In Gupta age the land tax was known as ‘Udrang’.
  •    Kadur and Charpal were the ports situated in Andhra Pradesh.
  •    Kaveripattanam and Tondai were the ports of Chola State.
  •    Kokai and Saliyur were the ports of Pandya State.
  •    Kottayam and Mujris were the ports of Malwa State.
  •    Sindhu, Orhoth, Kalyan and Mibor were other main ports for trade.
  •    Hiranya was the tax realized in cash. Bhutavat Pratyaya was the tax levied upon the imports from other countries.
  •    Haldand was the tax charged on the ploughed land.
  •    A definite portion of the produce from agricultural land was charged as the land tax by the State. It was called Bhag tax. Generally it was charged in kind.
  •    In the Gupta age, the land was donated only to the Brahmans.
  •    The land donated to Brahmans was called Brahmdeya.
  •    The tax free villages of the Brahmans were called Agrahara.
  •   In the Gupta age, the Gram Parishads (village councils) were autonomous and free from the State control.
  •    The uncultivated land was the property of the king.
  •    The women who remained unmarried throughout their life and passed their time in studies were called Brahmavadinis.
  •    Taxila, Varanasi and Ujjaini were prominent centres of education.
  •    In the Gupta society, intercaste marriages were performed.
  •    The slave system was practised in the Gupta age.
  •    The joint family system was in vogue in Gupta society.
  •    In the women though not as much respected as in Vedic period, yet enjoyed important position in the society of Gupta age.
  •    Sheelbhattarika was an educated and worthy woman of the Gupta age.
  •   Widow remarriages were performed in the Gupta age, But some works of the age speak against it. Chandra Gupta II married the widow of Ramgupta, his brother. Her name was Dhruva Swamini.
  •    Prostitutes, expert in music and dance, and perfect in sexology were called ‘Ganikas’.
  •    The traders and commercial professionals had their ‘Shrenis’ in Gupta age. The Patkar, Tailik (oil traders), Pashan Kottak (stone cutters) were important Shrenis.
  •    The author of ‘Swapnavasavaduttam’ was an eminent prose writer.
  •    The author of Bhattikavya or Ravan Vadh, was Bhatti, an eminent poet of Gupta age.
  •    Bhartahari worte ‘Niti Shatak’, Shringar Shatak and Vairagya Shatak which became very famous. Some scholars believe that Bhartahari is another name for Bhatti.
  •    ‘Kuntleshwar Daityam’ is a drama that testifies to the fact that Kalidas belonged to the Gupta age.
  •    ‘Abhigyanshakuntalam’ ‘Meghdoot’ ‘Ritusanhar’ are some of the major works of Kalidas.
  •    Kamsutra is a famous book on Sexology written by Vatsyayan.
  •   Vaibhashik and Sanghbhadra were the two Acharyas (teachers) of the Gupta age who wrote the literature of the Vaibhashik sect.  Modern Indian History Important Points Part-1 
Modern Indian History Important Points Part-2
Medieval Indian History Important Points Part-1
Medieval Indian History Important Points Part-2
Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-1
RRB NTPC EXAM -2016: Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-2 RRB NTPC EXAM -2016: Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-2 Reviewed by GK Adda on 09:30:00 Rating: 5

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