RRB NTPC EXAM -2016: Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-1

RRB NTPC EXAM -2016: Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-1
RRB NTPC EXAM -2016: Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-1
  •   The Harappan Fort in the shape of a parallel square is 460 yards in length (north-south) 215 yards in breadth (east-west) and 15-17 yards in height.
  •    The script of Indus civilization was pictorial in which there were more than 600 picture-letters and 60 original letters.
  •    The excavations of Chanhudaro were carried out in 1925 under the leadership of Earnest M’ckay. This town had no fort.
  •   Naal, Daburkot, Rakhi Garhi, Banawali, Rangpur, Lothal, Des Morasi, Kulli, Rana Ghundai, Anjira, Gumla, Amri, Ghundai, Mundigak, Diplabaga, Sahar-i-Sokhta, Bampur and Queta etc. are famous historical sites where the remains of Indus civilization and pre Indus civilization have been excavated.
  •    Daburkot, Periano, Ghundai, Kulli, Mehi, Chanhudaro, Amri, Lohumjodaro, Alimurad, Ropar, Rangpur, Sutkegender are the prominent (spots) places of Indus Valley civilization.
  •    The excavations of Kalibangan, a historical place in Rajasthan began in 1961 under the direction of B. K. Thapar and B. B. Lal. From the lower layer of the excavation, the remains of pre Indus civilization and from the upper layer of the Indus civilization are discernible. The fortress and the city both were surrounded with walls.
  •    The excavations at Rangpur—an Indus site in Gujarat were carried out in 1953-54 under the leadership of Rangnath Rao. Forts of raw bricks, drainage, terrecota utensils, weights and slabs of stone have been found but the idol of mother Goddess (Matridevi) and coins have not been found.
  •    Lothal was situated at that time near the ocean. In excavations the remains of a dockyard have been found which testify to the trade relations of Indus people with western Asia.
  •    In the district of Kutchh in Gujarat state, 12 kms north-east of Adesar is situated Surkotda which was explored and excavated in 1964 under the guidance of Jagatpati Joshi.
  •    In the excavation of Indus civilization, a very big building has been explored. It is 242 ft long and 112 ft broad. The walls are 5 ft thick.
  •    Some figurines on tables have been found in Indus civilization in the centre of which is a round shaped Sun and around it are the pictures of 6 gods arranged in a way that they appear as if they are the Sun beams. This testifies to the worship of Sun in the period.
  •    The proof of the existence of a Man-like being are 1 crore to 20 lacs years old.
  •    In the Indian population, there are four basic racial sub-difference. These are Negrito, Astro Australians, Kakeshisi and Mongoloids.
  •    In India, skeletons (human body in bones-kankal) have been found in Sarai Nahar Rai near Allahabad, Bataikhor and Lekhania. High in length, flat nose and broad mouth are their characteristics. These belong to Mesolithic age.
  •    The pre stone civiliation came to be knwon in the region of river Sohan a subsidiary of Sindhu. Hence it is called Sohan civilization. The Vatikapoom in the form of (Gandasa) axe and Khandak were its main implements.
  •    In Harappan culture, the worship of Earth as goddess was in vogue. This is indicated by the idol of a woman with a plant growing out of her womb.
  •    Along with the Elephants, Rhinoceros, Buffalos, Lions and Deers, the picture of Yogi engraved on a seal (Muhar) suggests the worship of Shiva in Harappan civilization. This god had three heads and he sat with crossed legs.
  •    The Talismans obtained in large numbers indicate that the people of Harappan culture believed in witchcraft or the dead souls. These talismans were made of bronze and copper in the form of plate.
  •    In Harappan culture the weight (for measuring) were 16 or of its multiplied numbers.
  •    The dogs and cats were the domesticated animals and their foot prints confirm this fact.
  •    The remains of the horses have been found at Surkotda. The existence of the horse is not known from the upper layer of Mohanjodaro excavation. The terrecota small figurines provide knowledge about it.
  •    The people of Lothal used rice in 1800 B.C.
  •    As Sindh was one of the oldest region for cultivating cotton, the Greeks named it as Sedon.
  •    In Harappan culture, silver was obtained from Afghanistan, Iran, South India, Arabia and Baluchistan. Gold was imported from Afghanistan and Persia.
  •    The stone Lajward was brought from Badakshan, Feroza was brought from Iran. Jayumani was brought from Maharashtra, Moonga and redstone were brought from Saurashtra and Western India and the precious greenstone (Panna) was brought from Central Asia.
  •    The Ahar culture (Rajasthan) belonged to the Copper age. The houses were built of stone and a mixture of lime and soil. Paddy was cultivated and Metal Work in Bronze were in vogue. All these were the characteristics of this culture which existed about 2000 B.C.
  •    The remains of Malwa stone and Bronze culture have been found in Navdatoli where the houses were built of mud, bamboo and dry grass in a square and round shape. The terrecota utensils and agricultural products of wheat, oil seeds, pulses (Masur) and green and black gram are the characteristics of this culture.
  •    The Rishis (Sages) like Gritsamad, Vishwamitra, Bhardwaj, Atri and Vashishta composed the Suktas or the Vedic Mantras.
  •    The prominent female sages were Lopamudra, Ghosa, Shachi and Poulomi.
  •    Sam Ved is divided into three branches —(1) Kouthum, (2) Ranayaniya, (3) Jaminiya.
  •    Prominent among the Ayurvedacharyas were Acharya Ashwini Kumar, Dhanvantari, Banabhatt, Sushrut, Madhav, Jeevan and Lolimbaraja etc.
  •    Ayur Ved is an ‘Upaved’ of Rig Ved, Dhanur Ved is ‘Upaved’ of Yajur Ved, Gandharva Ved is the ‘Upaved’ of Sam Ved and Shilpa Ved is the ‘Upaved’ of Atharva Ved.
  •    Rig Ved has two Brahmans—(1) Aitereya, (2) Kaushitaki.
  •    Krishna Yajur Ved has the Brahman—Taitteriya and Shukla Yajur Ved has the Shatpath Brahman.
  •    The Brahmans of Sam Ved are Tandav, Panchvish, Sadvish and Chhandogya.
  •    The Aranyakas deal with life, death and other serious themes. These are written and studied in loneliness of the forests.
  •    Aitereya and Kaushitaki are the Aranyakas of Rig Ved. The author of Aitereya was Mahidas Aitereya.
  •    Taitteriya Aranyaka belongs to Krishna Yajur Veda.
  •    Sam Ved and Atharav Ved have no Aranyakas.
  •    Prominent among the Upanishads are Ish, Ken, Kath, Prashn, Mundak, Mandukya, Taitteriya, Aitereya, Chhandogya, Vrihadaranyak, Shwetashwara, Kaushitaki and Mahanarayana.
  •    During the Rigvedic period Nishk was an ornament for the neck; Karnashobhan was an ornament for the ear and Kumbh was the ornament for the head.
  •   In the Rigvedic age, the Aryans domesticated the cow, the buffalo, goat (ajaa), horse, elephant and camel etc.
  •    Bheeshaj was the person who treated the sick people.
  •    The Rigvedic Aryans worshipped the Sun as Savita, Mitra, Pooshan and Vishnu. Sun was called the ‘Eye of Gods’; and Agni the ‘Mouth of Gods’. Agni was considered to be the Purohit of the Aryans. They thought that the offering of the Yajna reaches to the gods through Agni. Varun was worshipped as a spatial god.
  •    In Rig Veda, Usha, Sita, Prithvi, Aranyani, Ratri, Vak are worshipped as goddesses.
  •    Besides Rig Ved, the reference of Sita as the goddess of agriculture is made in Gomil Grihya Sutra and Paraskar Grihya Sutra.
  •    The ancient idols of Ganesh show his main weapons as Paash and Ankush.
  •    In the Rigvedic age the traders were called ‘Pani’. They stole away the cattle of the Aryans.
  •    Das’ or Dasyas were more hated than the ‘Pani’. They have been referred as black complexioned inauspicious and opposed to Yajnas. They were the worshippers of Phallus (Shishnadev).
  •    In the Rigvedic age, the cow was the backbone of economy. It was called ‘Aghanya’—not to be killed, war has been referred as Gavisthi, the guest as Mohan and the daughter as Duhiti. One Rik refers to the domestication of sheep.
  •    Vashishtha who replaced Vishwamitra as Purohit of King Sudas, has been mentioned as adopted son of Urvashi, and born of the ‘Virya’ of Mitra and Varun on an earthen pot.
  •    Ballabh and Tarukshadas were chieftains who lavishly donated to the Purohits and through their grace obtained respect and high place in the Aryan society.
  •    Savitri is referred in the famous Gayatri Mantra. In Rig Ved the maximum reference is made of Indra. After him Varun is referred to. In the earlier Richas Varun and Marut have been mentioned as ‘Gan’. Twasta also was a Vedic God.
  •    Prajapati has been referred as the Adi Purush—the first human (male). The gods were his children.
  •    In Rig Ved, the king has been mentioned as the Protector of the clan or the Gopta Janasya. The reference to Sabha, Samiti, Gan, Vidath is made as the Tribal Councils.
  •    No bureaucracy developed in Rigvedic age. Yet the officer of Gochar land were called Vrajpati, the officer of the village was called Gramani. He was the commander. The chief of the family is referred as ‘Kulap’.
  •    The words like Vrat, Gan, Gram and Shardh have also been used for indicating the group of Soldiers.
  •    In Rig Ved Jan is used 275 times, Vish is used 170 times. Sangram is the word which indicates war between the villages.
  •    The God of Vegetation. It was also an intoxicating drink and the method of its preparation is referred in the Rig Ved.
  •    The later Vedic literature was written during 1100 to 600 B.C. The painted grey ware—bowls and plates were used and the tools which they used were made of iron.
  •    The main crop of the later Vedic age was wheat and paddy instead of barley.
  •    In the later Vedic age, the Vidath were extinct but the Sabha and the Samiti existed.
  •    In this period, the King performed the rites of Rajsuya Yajna with a desire to obtain divine power, Ashwamedha Yajna to expand the empire and the Vajpeya Yajna for chariot racing with friends and relatives of his Gotra.
  •    The Gotra system began in the later Vedic age. The custom of marrying outside the Gotra also started.
  •   In the literature of later Vedic age, the first three Ashrams are mentioned—(1) Brahmcharya, (2) Grihastha, (3) Banprastha. The Sanyas Ashram is not mentioned.
  •    In later Vedic period the plant Som could not be obtained easily. As such other drinks were also used.
  •    Gold and Silver were mainly used for making ornaments and utensils. Other metals were used for making many other implements in the later Vedic era.
  •    In later Vedic period, the commercial classes (Traders) organized themselves in ‘Sangh’. The Aryans conducted sea trade. Nisk, Satman and Krishal were usded as coins for trade purposes.
  •    In comparison to the religion of Rigvedic period, the later Vedic religion had become very complex. Purohits, Yajna and sacrifice were considered important. Many types of Yajnas were performed.
  •    The Shatpath Brahman refers to the various steps in progress of cultivation—Jutai (ploughing), Buwai (planting), Lawani (weaning), Mandai (cutting) are the various processes mentioned in it.
Modern Indian History Important Points Part-1
Modern Indian History Important Points Part-2
Medieval Indian History Important Points Part-1 
Medieval Indian History Important Points Part-2 
Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-2
RRB NTPC EXAM -2016: Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-1 RRB NTPC EXAM -2016: Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-1 Reviewed by Unknown on 09:30:00 Rating: 5

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