Railway NTPC Exam - 2016: Modern Indian History Important Points Part-1

Railway NTPC Exam - 2016: Modern Indian History Important Points Part-1
Railway NTPC Exam - 2016: Modern Indian History Important Points Part-1

  • Muazzam occupied the Mughal throne as Bahadur Shah after his success in the war of succession.
  • Muazzam, the son of Aurangzeb was called as the ‘Shah Bekhabar’.
  • The Mughal King Farrukh Siyar gratned concession to the English men to trade in Bengal, Gujarat and Hyderabad.
  • In 1759 Ali Mohar, the son of Alamgir sat upon the Mughal throne as Shah Alam II.
  • After the death of Maratha ruler Shahu, the real power of the State came in the hands of Peshwas.
  • Nawab Murshid Quli Khan of Bengal transferred his capital to Murshidabad from Dacca.
  • Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal transferred his capital to Moongher from Murshidabad.
  • In the middle of the 18th century, the nominal ruler of Mysore was Chika Krishnaraj. The real power of the State lied with the two brothers—Nand Raj and Dev Raj.
  • In 1761 Hyder Ali captured Nandraj and became the master of Mysore.
  • In the first Anglo-Mysore war, Hyder Ali badly defeated the English army.
  • In 1781 Hyder Ali conqurered Arcot but in 1781 at Porn Novo Sir Eyerkoot defeated him.
  • Ali Muhammad Khan established the State of Rohilkhand.
  • The early capital of Rohilkhand was ‘Awala’ which later shifted to Rampur.
  • Guru Har Gobind Singh constructed the Akaal Takht at Amritsar.
  • Guru Gobind Singh converted the Sikhs into a warring and military group.
  • In 1721, the two sects of Sikhism ‘Bandai’ and ‘Tatkhalsa’ merged in one sect ‘Khalsa’. This sect became a headache for the Mughals.
  • The Sikhs were organized in 12 unions or misls which grew in political significance. Later Ranjeet Singh conquered these misls and organized them into Punjab State.
  • The ruler of the Afghanistan conferred the title of Raja upon Ranjeet Singh and appointed him the Subedar of Lahore.
  • The treaty of Amritsar was signed between the English and Ranjeet Singh in 1809. As a result the English checked the expansion of Ranjeet Singh towards the region of Sutluj.
  • According to the treaty of Amritsar, the English accepted Ranjeet Singh as an independent ruler.
  • During first Anglo-Sikh war, the Governor-General of India was Lord Hardinge.
  • Punjab was ruled by Maharaja Dalip Singh when the Lahore Treaty was signed in 1846 between the Sikhs and the English after the defeat of Sikhs in the first Anglo Sikh war.
  • During Sirajudaulla’s time, the English settlement at Calcutta became a resort for the enemies of Nawab and the traitors.
  • On 4th June, 1756 Sirajudaulla invaded and captured the Qasim Bazar factory of English near Murshidabad.
  • The Black hole tragedy as it is known in history, came to light through the letter of Holvell. Some of the historians consider it imaginery.
  • In the contemporary historical works like Sher-a-Mutkherin and Royas-us-Salatin, there is no reference to the Black hole tragedy.
  • On 9th February, 1757, the Ali Nagar Treaty was signed between the English and the Nawab.
  • After the war of Plassey, when Sirajudaulla was running away from Murshidabad towards Patna he was captured and killed.
  • On 28 June, 1757, the English declared Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal.
  • After victory in Plassey war, the English Company obtained concessions to trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
  • On 25 November, 1759, the Bedara war was fought between the English and the Dutch and the Dutch were defeated. The victory helped the English in consolidating their hold on Bengal.
  • Mir Qasim planned friendship with Vansittart to become the Nawab of Bengal.
  • Mir Qasim gave to East India Company, the districts of Vardhman, Midnapur and Chittgaon for the expenditure of the English army.
  • In 1764 the joint army of Mir Qasim, Shujauddaulla and Shah Alam fought with the English—the war of Buxar, the English were victorious in this war.
  • After the Buxar War, the Allahabad treaty was signed between English and the Mughal King Shah Alam in 1765 AD.
  • According to Allahabad Treaty, the districts of Kara and Allahabad were taken away from the Nawab of Oudh and given to Mughal King. The East India Company agreed to pay to the king a pension of Rs. 26 lacs. In lieu the English got Diwani rights in Bengal.
  • After the death of Mir Jafar, his son Nizamuddaula was enthroned as Nawab of Bengal.
  • K. M. Panikkar holds that from 1765 to 1772, the rule of East India Company in Bengal was the ‘rule of dacoits’.
  • During Warren Hastings period, the Treasury was transferred by the East India Company to Calcutta from Murshidabad and Calcutta was made the capital.
  • During the Governorship of Warren Hastings, in every district of subjugated India one Civil and one Criminal Court was opened.
  • The cases upto to Rs. 500 were referred to the Civil Court and alone it, the appeal could be made to the Sadar Diwani Adalat.
  • The District Criminal Court was put in charge of an Indian Officer.
  • The Regulating Act of 1773 established a Supreme Court at Calcutta.
  • The Permanent settlement introduced by Cornwallis brought changes in the land system. Most of the land came in the hands of commercial and rich classes of Calcutta.
  • The Permanent settlement ensured the income of the Government. Besides the cooperation of the new Zamindars was obtained.
  • In the Mahalwari system, land revenues was fixed either through the local Zamindars or their hereditary tax collectors or the Zamindars of the Mahal. Mahal was the collection of villages. The Mahalwari system was known in Punjab as the village system.
  • The Raiyyatwari system was introduced during early 19th century in some regions of Madras and Bombay. The Govt. directly obtained a fixed amount from the peasants.
  • In the Raiyyatwari system, the revenue rate was fixed 45% to 50% of the total produce separately.
  • The Raiyyatwari system had many defects which the Govt. official accepted at the time of a parliamentary inspection for the renewal of the Company’s Charter.
  • In the Fifth and Sixth decades of 19 century, the English invested in large amount to control Indian economy.
  • The English invested their capital on roads and communications, Railway, Post and Telegraph, Banks and tea gardens.
  • In 1830 the Ahoms again rebelled against the English. This time, the English Company adopted a peaceful policy and granted north Assam and some other region to King Purandar Singh.
  • Raja Teerath Singh of Nanakkalo rebelled against the English with the help of Garo, Khampati and Sinhopo tribes. Soon it took the shape of a mass-movement. In 1833, the English could crust it with superior military force.
  • In 1825, the Assam Rifles rebelled against the English.
  • In 1838, the Indian troops stationed at Sholapur rebelled due to non-payment of the full allowances.
  • In 1850 the Gobind Garh regiment rebelled.
  • On 1 January, 1857, the use of British made Enfield Rifles was started in India. In the cartridges of this Rifle, the fat of cows and pigs were used.
  • In March 1857, the soldiers of Bairakpur Cantt refused to use the fat cartridges.
  • On 2 May, 1857, the Oudh Regiment of Lucknow too refused to use these cartridges. As a result, the Oudh regiment was disbanded.
  • To the soldiers of Meerut who had refused to use the fat cartridges, an English military officer—Carr Michael Smith issued the jail punishment of 5 years.
  • On 10 May, 1857, a section of the infantry and cavalry of Merrut rebelled at about 5 P.M.
  • The rebels marched to Delhi, captured the city and declared Bahadurshah the emperor of India. Bahadurshah assumed the leadership of revolt in Delhi.
  • During this rebellion, Nana Saheb established his suzeranity over Kanpur and declared himself the Peshwa.
  • In Bundelkhand Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi assumed the leadership of the revolt.
  • In Bihar, the zamindar of Jagdishpur, named Kunwar Singh led the revolt.
  • On 28 May, 1857, the soldiers of Nasirabad Cantt in Rajasthan, rebelled.
  • Kota and Adva were the main centres of revolt in Rajasthan.
  • The Central India, Tantya Tope led the revolt.
  • In U.P. the importnat centres of revolution were Jhansi, Kanpur, Bareilly, Meerut, Lucknow, Aligarh, Mathura and Agra.
  • The Bareilly rebellion was led by Batakhs Khan.
  • The Commissioner of Oudh, Henry Laurrence died of a blast on 4th July, 1857.
  • While suppressing the revolt, the English officer Neil buried the dead Brahmans and burnt the dead Muslims.
  • In March 1858, under the leadership of Kunwar Singh, the rebels captured Azamgarh.
  • While marching towards Benaras from Azamgarh, there was an encounter between Kunwar Singh and the English officer Lord Mark in which Lord Mark had to run away to save his life.
  • Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur was the only leader to have died under the banner of freedom.
  • On 14 December, 1857, the English army blasted Kashmiri Gate of Delhi.
  • In November 1857 the rebels defeated the English General Windaham near Kanpur.
  • Vinayak Damodar Saverker was the first to name the rebellion of 1857 as the first war of Indian independence.
  • According to Sir Seeley, the rebellion of 1857 was fully a national revolt conducted by selfish soldiers.
  • Sir John Lawrence, P. E. Roberts and V. A. Smith have called it a Sepoy Mutiny.
  • According to V. A. Smith, the rebellion of 1857 was purely a sepoy mutiny which fully reflected the indiscipline of Indian soldiers and the foolishness of English military officers.
  • According to Sir James Outtram, the revolt of 1857 was the result of a conspiracy of the Muslims who desired to fulfill their self-interest on the strength of the Hindus.
  • Ashok Mehta in his book, ‘The Great Revolt’, has attempted to prove that it was a national revolt.
  • Pattabhi Sita Ramaiyya takes it to be the first war of Indian independence.
  • After crushing the revolt of 1857, they constituted an India Council and abolished the Board of Directors. There were 15 members in the India Council and a Secretary of State for India.
  • After the revolt, Lord Canning announced the Declaration of the Queen at a Durbar held at Allahabad. He called it, ‘the Magna Carta of Indian people’.
  • In the Declaration of the Queen, the policy of expansion of the political limits came to an end.
  • The rebels responsible for the murder of Englishmen were punished. All others were pardoned.
  • The objective of Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ramkirshna Mission and the Theosophical society etc. was to herald a renaissance in India.
  • Brahma Samaj was founded in Calcutta by Raja Ram Mohan Roy on 20 August, 1828.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy always advocated the appointment of Indians on high govt. posts. He played a major role in the abolition of Sati system.
  • After the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy on 20 August, 1833, Devendara Nath Tagore assumed the leadership of the Brahma Samaj.
  • Aadi Brahma Samaj was established by Devendra Nath Thakur.
  • Bhartiya Brahma Samaj was founded by Keshav Chandra Sen.
  • The principles of Brahma Samaj helped immensely in the birth and Spread Indian nationalism.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy established Vedant College, English School and Hindu College at Calcutta.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the advocate of English Education and he thought English to be the vehicle of progress.
  • It was due to the effort of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, that the restriction upon the newspapers were lifted.
  • In 1819, at Maharashtra, Prarthna Sabha was founded. It came to an end due to its limited scope.
  • In 1867 Atma Ram Pandurang established Prarthna Samaj. M. G. Ranade, R. G. Bhandarkar and Narayan Chandrawarkar were the prominent members of this Samaj.
Modern Indian History Important Points Part-2 
Medieval Indian History Important Points Part-1 
Medieval Indian History Important Points Part-2 
Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-1 
Ancient Indian History Important Points Part-2
Railway NTPC Exam - 2016: Modern Indian History Important Points Part-1 Railway NTPC Exam - 2016: Modern Indian History Important Points Part-1 Reviewed by GK Adda on 09:30:00 Rating: 5

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