Railway CBT EXAM -2016: Indian Geography Major Crops & Cropping Seasons In India Part -2

Railway CBT EXAM -2016: Indian Geography Major Crops & Cropping Seasons In India Part -1
Railway CBT EXAM -2016: Indian Geography Major Crops & Cropping Seasons In India Part -1
Rice

It covers about 25% of the total gross cropped area of the country.

Climatic Conditions: Rain fall more than 125 cm.; clayey loam soil is best suited; average monthly temperature should not fall below 21°C as in Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar, Assam and South India.

Area: Coastal India (south of Bombay on the western coast), Eastern India, Chhattisgarh Plain, Wainganga valley, alluvial plain of West Bengal, Mahanadi delta, eastern Assam valley, Cauvery delta.

In West Bengal rice is grown in 3 different agronomic seasons-

(1)Aus, sown in Feb-March,

(2)Aman, sown in March-April &

(3)Boro, sown in June.

In terms of production as % of total rice production, West Bengal ranks first followed by T.N., U.P., Andhra Pradesh, Punjab & Bihar.


In terms of yield (kg/ha), Tamil Nadu ranks one followed by Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.


Wheat

It covers about 14% of total cropped area of the country.

Climatic Conditions: Cool climate; 30 cm. rainfall during the growing period; clayey alluvial is the best suited soil; raised mainly in area of rainfall annually less than 100 cm.

Crops: (1) Common bread wheat-Most common in the Indo-Gangetic Plains; the major part of total wheat produced in India. (2) Durum/ Marcaroni wheat-Susceptible to yellow rust; most common in the north-western India and the black soils of Indian Plateau. (3) Emmer/Triticum Dicocum wheat-Produced in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. (4) Indian dwarf wheat-Produced in limited areas of M.P. and U.P.

About 70% of total wheat area in India is under irrigation.

About 40% of total wheat area in India is rain-fed.

In terms of area as a percentage of total area under wheat, UP ranks one followed by MP, Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar and Haryana.

In terms of production as % of total wheat production in India, U.P. ranks one followed by Punjab, Haryana, Bihar.

In terms of yield (kg/ha) Punjab ranks one followed by Haryana, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh.

 Barley

For the growth of barley the climatic conditions are the same as for wheat. However it can well thrive even in more cool climate as its potential area is much wider than the wheat.

Barley is used for the production of malt which again is used for brewing beer and other alcoholic
products.

In terms of production as % of total barley production in India, Uttar Pradesh ranks first followed by Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab.

Maize

Climatic Conditions: Area of 4.5 months free from frost; temperature during growing period of 21°C to 27°C but should not fall below 13°C; rainfall between 50 to 100 cm.; well drained loamy soils rich in nitrogen; grown as kharif crop in all the states.

Area: Mainly north of a line connecting Surat with Kolkata (excluding Kutch, West Rajasthan and Ladakh), in the North East (Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram), northern districts of Andhra Pradesh and the adjoining districts of Maharashtra and M.P.

In terms of area as % of total area under maize U.P. ranks first followed by Rajasthan, M.P., Bihar and Gujarat.

In term of production as % of total production in India U.P. also ranks first followed by former Bihar, Karnataka, M.P., Rajasthan.

 Jowar/Sorghum

Climatic Conditions: Annual rainfall below 100 cm, needs 30 cm rainfall during the growing season; mean monthly temperature between 20° and 33°C, clayey deep regur and alluvium for better field.

Area: On Indian Plateau, west of 80°E meridian; south of Pune 80% agricultural land under it; in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka as rabi & as kharif elsewhere.

In terms of area as % of total area under it Maharashtra ranks first followed by Karnataka, M.P., Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. 
In terms of production as % of total production Maharashtra also ranks first followed by Karnataka, M.P., and Andhra.

 Other Coarse Cereals

Beside maize and jowar a variety of coarse cereals are grown in India. These are mostly rain fed crops like bajra, ragi, etc.

Coarse cereals altogether accounts 28-30% of the total area under food crops and about 18.5% of total annual food production.

Though they have little commercial value they are liable to be grown in even ecologically unfriendly areas and have been adopted by the poor section of the society.

In terms of area as % of total area under bajra Rajasthan ranks first followed by Maharashtra, Gujarat, U.P. and Haryana.

In terms of production as % of total production of bajra Rajasthan ranks first followed by Gujarat, U.P. Maharashtra and M.P.

Pulses

Kharif Pulses: Arhar/ Tur, Moong, Urad, Moth, etc; grown throughout India.

Rabi Pulses: Gram, Peas, Khesari, Masur, Urad, etc.; grown in north India.

Pulses occupy about 13% of total Indian cropped area while 90% area under it is rainfed.

In terms of area as % of total area under pulses M.P. ranks first followed by Rajasthan, Maharashtra, U.P. and Orissa.

In terms of production as % of total production: Haryana ranks first followed by Punjab, M.P. and U.P.

Oil Seeds

A.    Groundnut: India ranks first in the world both in area and production.

Climate: Highly susceptible to frost so not grown in the winter season north of Tropic of Cancer. Well drained sandy soil is more suitable for it

Area: Raised as kharif throughout India but as Rabi in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa. Kharif crop covers more than 90% area.

In terms of area Gujarat ranks first followed by Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra.

In terms of production Gujarat also ranks first followed by Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra.
B. Rapeseed & Mustard

Climate: Like wheat they thrive only in cool climate and frost damages it. It is grown as Rabi crop.

U.P. and Rajasthan are the chief producer and together they account for 60% of the country production.

In terms of area U.P. ranks first followed by Rajasthan, Haryana and M.P.

In terms of production Rajasthan ranks first followed by U.P., Haryana and M.P.

C. Sesamum/ Til

India shares about one-third of world production and area wise first in the world.

Climate-Raised throughout India on light soil as kharif in the northern India and as Rabi crop in south India.

The main producing states are Orissa, Karnataka and Gujarat.

D. Linseed

India accounts 10% of world production and area wise stands first in the world.

Main producing states are M.P., U.P., Maharashtra, Bihar and Rajasthan.

E. Castorseed

India contributes 20% of world production and area wise stands first in world.

Climate: Generally raised as a mix crop in tropical and sub-tropical climate. In India almost all area under this crop is rainfed.

Raised as kharif crop in North-India and as rabi in South-India.

Main producing states are Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka & T.N.

F. Niger Seed

Area wise first in the world;

Used for making soap.

Main producing states are M.P., Orissa, Maharashtra and Bihar.

G. Sunflower

Area wise first in the world raised as rabi crop.
Maharashtra alone shares about 75% of the country production.
Railway CBT EXAM -2016: Indian Geography Major Crops & Cropping Seasons In India Part -2 Railway CBT EXAM -2016: Indian Geography Major Crops & Cropping Seasons In India Part -2 Reviewed by GK Adda on 16:30:00 Rating: 5

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