Railway CBT EXAM -2016: Indian Geography Major Crops & Cropping Seasons In India Part -1

Railway CBT EXAM -2016: Indian Geography Major Crops & Cropping Seasons In India Part -1
Railway CBT EXAM -2016: Indian Geography Major Crops & Cropping Seasons In India Part -1

1.  India ranks 7th in the world in terms of total geographical area but 2nd in terms of cultivated land.

2. India has total geographical area of 328.7 million hectares out of which 142.60 m hectares is the net sown area. It is about 46.59%. Arunachal Pradesh has only 3.2 percent area under net cultivation while in Haryana and Punjab it is 82.20 percent.

3.  In Punjab, more than 94% of the total cropped area is irrigated.

4. In India, out of the net cropped area of 142.82m hectares, only 55.14 million hectares (38.5%) are irrigated.   
5. India stands next only to China in the production of rice contributing 21.5 percent of the world population.

6. Bengal is the largest rice producing state contributing to more than 14.6% of the rice production of India, but in term of yield per hectare Punjab and Haryana occupy the top rank.

7. Soviet Union, United States and China are the countries which produces more wheat than India. In term of production U.P. ranks first while in terms of yield Punjab ranks first in India.

8.  India is the second largest producer of sugarcane after Brazil and it has the largest area under sugarcane cultivation.

9. India grows 7% of the total world production of tobacco which is next only to China, U.S.A and Brazil.

10.  Kerala is considered as the “spice state of India”.

11.  Harrison” and “Virginia Gold” are the high yielding varieties of tobacco.

                                           Cropping Season in India

India has many growing seasons due to prevalence of high temperature through a long period. Different crop seasons are:

(a) Kharif: Crops are sown at the beginning of the South -West monsoon and harvested at the end of the South -West monsoon.

Important crops: Jowar, bajra, rice, maize, cotton, Jute, groundnut, sugarcane, tobacco etc.

(b) Rabi: Crops need relatively cool climate during the period of growth but warm climate during the germination of their seed and maturation.

Sowing season- (October -December) and harvesting season (February - April).

Important Crops: Wheat, barley, gram, linseed, mustard, masur, peas and potatoes.

(c) Zaid: Crops which are being raised throughout the year due to artificial irrigation.

(i) Zaid Kharif: Sown in August-September and harvested in December-January. Important crops include rice, jowar, rapeseed, cotton and oilseeds.

(ii)                 Zaid Rabi: Sown in February - March and harvested in April -May. Important crops are watermelon, cucumber, leafy and other vegetables.

Total geographical area of India: 328.7 m. ha.

Total New sown Area: 140.27 m. ha. (46.12%)

Total Net Irrigated Area: 38.80 m. ha (27.66% of net sown area).

In Eastern India, east of 80° East meridian and in the coastal lowland (West coastal lowland south of Surat) rice is the dominant crop. Tea and jute are distinctive crops of eastern India. West of 80° East meridian and north of Surat, wheat is the dominant crop. 100 cm Isohyet is the major dividing line.

Jowar, bajra, pulse, groundnut and cotton are the chief crops in the Indian Plateau and wheat, various pulses, cotton, mustard, jowar, bajra, etc. in the alluvial plains of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.
                                      Types of Farming

1.  Shifting Cultivation: Prevalent in the forest areas; cultivation is done over the burnt forests which are abandoned when fertility dwindles. It has different name indifferent states. Main crops: dry paddy, wheat, maize, sugar cane etc.

2. Sedentary or Settled Cultivation: Mainly confined to plateau and highland areas. Main crops: Sugarcane, Oilseeds, Cotton.

3.  Capitalist Farming: Practised on large holdings called, farm estates. It is highly capital

intensive type of agriculture. Main crops: plantation crops.

Railway CBT EXAM -2016: Indian Geography Major Crops & Cropping Seasons In India Part -1 Railway CBT EXAM -2016: Indian Geography Major Crops & Cropping Seasons In India Part -1 Reviewed by GK Adda on 16:30:00 Rating: 5

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