Detailed About Panchayati Raj And Municipalities System in India For SSC CGL,SSC CHSl And Railway Exams
|Detailed About Panchayati Raj And Municipalities System in India For SSC CGL,SSC CHSl And Railway Exams|
Ø Part IX of the constitution envisages a three system of panchayats :
· Panchayati at village level.
· The district panchayati at district level.
· The intermediate panchayati in states where the population is above 20 lakhs.
Ø All the seats in panchayati are filled by direct election.
Ø The electorate name is `GramSabha `.
Ø The chair person of panchayati is elected according to the law passed a state.
Ø Seats are reserved in panchayati for scheduled castes, and scheduled tribes in proportion to their population (Ref.: Art.243D).
Ø Out of the reserved seats, 1/3 is reserved for women belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.1/3 of the total seats to be filled by direct election in every panchayati is reserved for women.
Ø A state can make similar reservation for chairpersons in the panchayatis.
Ø Every panchayati can continue for 5 years from the date of its first meeting.It can be dissolved earlier in accordance with state law.
Ø A panchayati reconstituted after premature dissolution continues only for the remainder of the period. But if the remainder of the period is less than 6 months it is not necessary to hold election.
Ø All persons above 21 years of age and qualified to be a member of the state legislature are qualified as a member of panchayati (Ref.: Art. 243 F)
Ø Panchayati can be entrusted to prepare and implement plans for economic development and social justice.
Ø A state can authorize a panchayati to levy, collect and appropriated taxes, duties, tolls, etc…
Ø After the 73rd amendment of the constitution (25, April, 1993), every 5 years the state appoint a finance commission to review the financial position of the panchayati and make recommendations.
Ø State election consisting of a state election commissioner is appointed by the governor for superintendence, direction and control of elections to panchayatis (Ref.: Art. 243 K).
Ø The community development pro gramme was launched on Oct 2, 1952.
Ø The democratic decentralization was implemented for the first time in 1958 income areas of Andra Pradesh on experimental basis.
Ø The panchayati Raj was introduced for the first time on Oct, 1959 in Nagpur district of rajasthan by the prime minister jawahar Lal Nehru.
Ø Rajasthan is the first state in India, where panchayati Raj was implemented in the whole state.
Ø PART IX A gives a constitutional foundation to the local self government units in urban areas.
Ø Most provisions for municipalities are similar to those contained in PART IX,
E.g. Structure, Reservation of seats, Functions, sources of Income etc.
Ø Nagar panchayati is an area being transformed from a rural area to an urban area.
Ø Municipal council is for a smaller urban area.
Ø Municipal Corporation is for a larger urban area. The municipal corporation is the topmost urban local government.
Ø The members of municipality are generally elected by direct election.
Ø The legislature of a state can provide for representation in municipalities of:
· Persons having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration.
· Members of Lok Sabha, state assemble, Rajya Sabha and Legislative Council.
· The chair persons of ward committees.
Note: - If the population is 3 lacks or more ward committees are constituted.
Ø Two committees constituted for preparing development plan are :-
· A district planning committee at the district level
· A metropolitan planning committee at the metropolis level
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