RRB - 2016 Indian Dance For All Competitive Exams

                                        
RRB - 2016 Indian Dance For All Competitive Exams
RRB - 2016 Indian Dance For All Competitive Exams  


Andhra Pradesh
Kuchipudi
Kuchipudi is a Classical Indian dance of Andhra Pradesh and is also popular throughout South IndiaKuchipudi is the name of a village in the Divi Taluka of Krishna district that borders the Bay of Bengal and also the surname of the resident Brahmins practising this traditional dance form it is based on the theme of great mahabharata and ramayana.
Kolattam
Kolattam or "the stick dance", is another dance narratives in Andhra Pradesh. It is also called as Kolannalu or Kolkolannalu. It is a rural art usually performed during village festivals. It is a combination of rhythmic movements, songs and music. The Kolatam group comprises dancers ranging from 8 to 40 where they are grouped in pairs. The sticks provides the main rhythm. The dancers are led by the leader and move about in two circles. The inner circle receive the strikes on their sticks from the artists in the outer circle that deliver them. Kolattam is also called Kolanna in the Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh state.
Arunachal Pradesh
Bardo Chham
Bardo Chham is a folk dance of Sherdukpens, a small community of West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh, Bardo Chham depicts the victory of good over evil. The dance has an interesting background. According to the local beliefs, forces — both good and evil, rule mankind. The folks believe that in one year, twelve different types of stupid things, representing evil forces, appear each month and get together. The Sherdukpens mask themselves representing the different animals and dance to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals as an act of fighting the evil forces.
Assam
Bihu dance
The Bihu dance is a folk dance from the Indian state of Assam related to the festival of Bihu. It is performed by both young men and women, and is characterised by brisk dance steps,and rapid hand movement. Dancers wear traditionally colourful Assamese clothing. Dhol(Drum), Pepa(Horn), Gagana (an instrument made of bamboo) are the musical instrument used in this dance.the dress of the dance is very colorful and bright ladies wear sari of musturd and red and the men wear a dhoti a head band of color red and musturd.
Jhumur Naach
The "Adivasi" or Tea tribes community of Assam have a traditional form of dance called Jhumur Naach. This dance is performed by girls and boys together, sometimes by the girls alone, with accuracy of foot work while clasping tightly each other's waist. This dance is performed in the music of a beating drum-like instrument called a Mandar. This dance form has its origin among the tribals living in Chottanagpur region or present day Jharkhand and Northern Odisha.
Bagurumba
Bagurumba dance is generally a formation dance with slow steps and outstretched hands. This dance is performed by girls alone. Girls dressed in traditional colourful Bodo attire perform this dance in Bodo traditional musical instruments. This dance can be seen in the Bodo land areas of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Nalbari, Darrang and Sonitpur districts.
Jharkhand
Karma/Munda
The traditional Karma or Munda dance gets its name from the Karma tree  which stands for fortune and good luck. The ceremony starts with the planting of the trees. Dancers, both men and women, form circles around it and dance with their arms around each other's waists. As the drum beats get quicker and louder, the dancers gain momentum and generally end in an uproarious tumult.
Chhattisgarh
Panthi
Panthi is a folk dance of the Satnami community of Chhattisgarh and bears religious overtones. Performed on Maghi Purnima - the birth anniversary of their guru, Ghasidas, the dance is evolving still to include a variety of steps and patterns. The dancers dance around a jaitkhamb set up for the occasion, to the songs eulogising their spiritual head. The songs also reflect the Nirvana philosophy, conveying the spirit of renunciation of their Guru and the teachings of saint poets like Kabir, Ramdas, Dadu, etc. Dancers with bent torsos and swinging arms continue to dance till carried away by their devotion. As the rhythm quickens, they indulge in acrobatics and even form human pyramids.
Raut Nacha
Raut Nacha is a traditional folk dance usually done by Yadavs (a caste which considers itself as descendants of Krishna) as symbol of worship to Krishna. Done at the time of 'Dev Udhni Ekadashi' (time of awakening of Gods after brief rest) according to Hindu panchang (calendar).
Gaur Maria Dance
Gaur Maria dance is one of the important dances of Bison Horn Marias of Abhujmaria plateau of Bastar in Chhattisgarh. It is performed as an invocation on the occasion of marriages.
Goa
The multi-hued Tarangamel dance is all energy and youthfulness. On the occasions of Dussehra and Holi, the spirited girls and boys swarm the streets in colorful group, waving flags and streamers (tarang), inspiring and inviting one and all to imbibe the festive spirit. They shout "Ho! Ho!" To the beats of 'romut', 'dhol' and 'tasha'. The rainbow like costumes of the dancers and the multi-coloured flags and streamers make Tarangamel a visually appealing affair.
Gujarat
Garba
Garba is customarily performed by women, the dance involves circular patterns of movement and rhythmic clapping. It popularly performed during Navratri. The word comes from "garbha deep" which is translated as either light in the inner sanctum of the temple or lamp inside a perforated earthen pot (which is often used in the dance).
Raas
Raas is an energetic, vibrant dance originating in the state of Gujarat. Often called the "stick dance" because it uses polished sticks or dandiya, it represents a mock-fight between Durga and Mahishasura, the mighty demon-king. It is nicknamed "The Sword Dance" because the dandiya represent the sword of Durga and are hit together.
Tippani Dance
The Tippani Dance originated from the Chorwad region of Saurashtra. Labourer women take a wooden rod, sometimes tipped with iron at one end, to beat the floor.
Himachal Pradesh
Kinnauri Nati
The Kinnauri Nati is mainly a mime but also incorporates some abstract, languid sequences. Important among the dances of Nati is 'Losar shona chuksom', which takes its name from Losai, or the New Year. The dance depicts all the activities involved in sowing the crop and reaping it.
Namgen
The Namgen dance is performed in September to celebrate the autumnal hues. The costumes are largely woolen and richly studded ornaments of silver are worn by women. The most picturesque amongst these are dances of Gaddis. All regions of Himachal Pradesh have their own dances. Mostly men and women dance together, close to each other in the formation.

Haryana
Haryana has rich tradition of dances for various occasions (wedding, festivals, etc.) and seasons (harvest, sowing of seeds, monsoon, etc.). These dances come under one or the other category. Broadly, the following dances are common in one area or the other and performed on specific occasions. Music is made using many traditional instruments Sarangi, Harmonium, ChimtaDhadd, DholakManjeera, KhartalDamaruDuggiDafBansuriBeenGhungrooDhakGharha(by adding rubber cover on top of the pitcher), Thali (beaten with a stick to make music) and Shankha.
Karnataka
Yakshagana
Yakshagana is a classical dance drama popular in the state of Karnataka mostly popular in the Uttara KannadaShimogaUdupiDakshina Kannada and Kasaragod districts, Kerala. This theater art involves music, song, dance, acting, dialogue, story and unique costumes. Songs and dance adhere to well-established talas very similar to classical Indian dance forms but acting and dialogues are created spontaneously on stage depending on the ability of the performers. This combination of classical and folk elements makes yakshagana unique from any other Indian art. It can be equated with western opera.
Bayalata               
Bayalata is a form of Yakshagana found in southern Indian region of Karnataka featuring stories of from Indian epic poetry and the Puranas rendered as dance and drama.Bayalāṭa literally means open theater drama and marks the end of harvest season. The most popular theme for bayalāṭa is the story of Kōṭi and Cennayya, which has deep-rooted significance for the people of Tulu Nadu.
Dollu Kunitha
The Dollu Kunitha is a popular drum dance of Karnataka. The vigorous drum dance is performed by the men of the shepherd community known as 'Kurba'. Powerful drumming, acrobatic movements and attractive formations are the notable highlights of the dance. The men have large drums, decorated with colored cloth, slung from their necks, and they beat the drums as they dance with nimble foot and leg movement. The dance is at times accompanied by songs, which are religious or in praise of war.
Veeragaase dance
Female artists performing Veeragase is a dance form prevalent in the state of Karnataka, India. It is a vigorous dance based on Hindu mythology and involves very intense energy-sapping dance movements. Veeragase is one of the dances demonstrated in the Dasara procession held in Mysore. This dance is performed during festivals and mainly in the Hindu months of Shravana and Karthika.
Jammu and Kasmir
Kud
One of the famous dance forms of the state is Kud dance. It is performed to honor the gods ‘Lok Devtas’ as a thanks giving ritual and is mostly done in nights. This form has lots of interesting and twisted movements. Unlike other dance forms in Kud dance young people as well old people participate equally that makes it more interesting. Rhythm and Beats of the music dominate in this form of dance forms and dancers plan their movement accordingly. Some special Musical instruments are used in dance like Chhaina, Drums, Narsingha and flute. Spontaneity is another key Feature that is found mostly in all the folk dances. This kind of dance is generally performed in centre of mountains in and around Jammu and is mostly performed during rainy season. The reason behind this is the farmers and villagers who work as farmers want to oblige god the local deity ‘Gramdevta’ for protecting their cattle’s, maize crops, children’s and family from all sorts of natural calamities. The local farmers perform this dance generally and people join from nearby villages in the celebrations. Everyone is in their best attire and dance through the night and celebrate in a festive spirit.
Dumhal
Dumhal is a dance performed by the men folk of the Wattal tribe (kashmir) on specific occasions. The performers wear long colorful robes, tall conical caps that are studded with beads and shells. The party moves in a procession carrying a banner in a very ceremonial fashion. It is dug into the ground and the men begin to dance, forming a circle. The musical accompaniment comprises a drum and the vocal singing of the participants. Dumhal is performed on set occasions and at set locations.
Kerala
Mohiniyattam
Mohiniyattam is one of the eight Indian classical dance forms recognized by the Sangeet Natak Akademi. The term Mohiniyattam comes from the words "Mohini" (meaning a woman who enchants onlookers) and "attam" (meaning graceful and sensuous body movements). The word "Mohiniyattam" literally means "dance of the enchantress". Mohiniyattam seems to be a dance of the Devadasis; For years they enjoyed prestige and importance. However, Mohiniyattam only appears to be around 500 years old. Alternative opinions are that Mohiniyattam was not a dance of the Devadasis, and has existed only since "the Golden Era of Art and Literature" in the 16th and 17th centuries. The earliest recorded evidence, from the 18th century, is a report detailing the salaries of the dancers.
Kathakali
Originated over 500 years ago, Kathakali is a spectacular classical dance form of Kerala. It is a combination of drama, dance, music and ritual. Kathakali is one of the oldest theatre forms in the world. The word 'Katha' in Malayalam means Story and 'kali' means Play. Thus Kathakali literally means 'Story-Play'.
Thirayattam
Thirayattam is a ritualistic performing folk art form of kerala state in India.It blend of dance, theatre, music, satire, facial painting, body painting, masking, martial art & ritualistic function.This vibrant folk art form has great resemblance to the tradition and customs of the ancient civilization "Thirayattam" is one of the most outstanding folk art of kerala.This divine ritualistic folklore art form enacted in courtyards of "kaavukal"(sacred groves) and village shrines of south malabar (calicut & malappuram dt:)region in kerala state.
Theyyam
Theyyam other wise known as Kaliyattam, is one of the most outstanding folk arts of Kerala. Just as the name Kaliyattam indicates, it is a sacred ritual dance performed to glorify the goddess Kaali. The term 'Theyyam' is supposed to be the corrupt form of the Malayalam word 'Daivam', meaning God.It earned the name Thirayattam as every thira or village performed this ritualistic art at the village temple known as kaavu.
Thullal
The word 'Thullal' means 'Caper' or 'to leap or jump about playfully'. This art form emerged in the eighteenth century. A solo performance combining both dance and recitation, thullal is the explication of a tale - normally drawn from the puranas, narrated in verse.
Koodiyattam
Koodiyattam is the earliest classical dramatic art form of Kerala. Evidence show that this dance form was in vogue in all major temples from ninth century, and it became a full-fledged dramatic presentation before the fifteenth century. Koodiyattam literally means "acting together". Koodiyattam is a temple art and probably the only surviving form of the traditional presentation of Sanskrit drama.

Madhya Pradesh
Tertali
The Kamar tribe performs the Tera Tali, which is an elaborate ritual with many elements of dance. It is generally performed by two or three women who sit on the ground.Manjiras, or small metal cymbals are tied to different parts of the body, mostly the legs, and with a cymbal in either hand the dancer strikes these in rhythm. The head is covered with a veil, and at times a small sword is clenched between the teeth and an ornamental pot balanced on the head.
Charkula
This dance is performed in the Braj region of Uttar Pradesh- the land of Krishna and his consort - Radha. Veiled women balancing large multi-tiered circular wooden pyramids on their heads, alight with 108 oil lamps, dance to the strains of 'rasiya' - songs of Krishna. Charkula is especially performed on the third day after Holi - the day, which Radha was born. According to legend, Radha's grandmother ran out of the house with the charkula on her head to announce the birth of Radha, since then, Charkula has formed a popular dance form of Brajbhoomi, performed during various festivities.
Jawara
The Jawara is performed in the Bundelkhand area of Madhya Pradesh. It is essentially a harvest dance-reflecting the gaiety and pleasure of the peasants who have reaped a good harvest. The dance is performed by men and women together. The costumes and jewellery worn by the women are colorful. The women carry baskets full of jawara on their heads and although the dance is very vigorous they are able to balance these baskets very skillfully on their heads. The accompaniment includes a rich variety ofpercussion, stringed and wind instruments.
Matki Dance
The tableland of Malwa has comparatively very few dances. On wedding occasions, the countryside women of this part perform the 'Matki' dance with an earthen pot balanced on the head, the Matki is mostly danced solo. Sometimes just for merriment a couple of women join the main dancer who usually dances with a veil on her face. The two other variations of the Matki are the Aada and Khada Nach.
Phulpati Dance
The Phulpati is another dance, exclusively for unmarried girls. It is a dance of the semi-rural womenfolk. The agriculturist class of Malwa is not very much inclined to any dance by nature. During the Holi festival the revelers cannot restrain themselves from coming out with some sort of dance movements to the uneven manipulation of drums.
Grida Dance
When rabi crops sway in the fields in full bloom, the parties from different villages join together and perform the Grida dance. It continues from morning till evening. The host village returns the visit next year by going to the village of their guests of the preceding year. The dance has three distinct phases: (1) Sela - The feet movements are slow and comparatively rigid. (2) Selalarki - The feet movements become brisker and faster. (3) Selabhadoni - With the acceleration of the tempo, every limb of the body begins to sway in mood of exaltation.
Maanch
Maanch is a lyrical folk drama and a form of operatic ballet that is very popular in Malwa in Madhya Pradesh. "Maanch" means the stage or place of performance and as an indigenous & distinct folk-form. The presentation style & technique of the Maanch, its various thematic elements, & suitable music and gaudy costumes all contribute in making this play a unique one.
Maharashtra
Pavri Nach
In the hilly regions of the north west, the Kokna tribal dance to the accompaniment of the tarpha or pavri, a wind instrument made of dried gourd. Because of this, the dance is known as Tarpha Nach or Pavri Nach. The performers hold each other by the waist and dance in close formation. Men also dance separately, and this includes feats of skill, like forming a pyramid or rapidly revolving a dancer round a stout pole.
1.Lavni
2.Dhangri Gaja
3.Povadas
4.Koli
5.Tamasha
6.Dindi
7.Kala
8.Dangi
Manipur
Thang Ta
Thang Ta (The Art of the Sword and Spear) is the martial art form exclusive to Manipur, where Thang means sword and Ta means spear. In this amazing display of the traditional art of warfare, performers leap and attack each other and defend themselves. Encouraged by the kings of the earlier times, Thang Ta is an ingenious display of skill and creativity. The art has a ritualistic aspect with some movements of sword intended to ward off evil spirits, while other postures indicating protection. All the dance forms of Meiti people are believed to have originated from Thang Ta.
Dhol cholom
The drum, by itself, enjoys a privilege in the dances of Manipur. There are several kinds of drums, each intended for a particular occasion. The festival of Holi, in spring, is the real time for drum dances, such as Dhol Cholom. Lai haraoba dance is also a major folk dance of manipur.
Mizoram
Cheraw Dance
Cheraw dance is a combination of rhythm and skill. Four people hold two pairs of long bamboos across one another on the ground. As the bamboo sticks are clapped together, the main dancers in traditional attires weave patterns through them in time to the rhythm. Cheraw is a major attraction during all festive occasions in Mizoram. Cheraw is believed to have a foreign origin. Similar dances are popular in the Far East and the Philippines. The Mizos may have brought the dance with them when they migrated to their land in India.
Nagaland
Chang Lo or Sua Lua
This dance of the Chang tribe of Nagaland was performed to celebrate the victory over enemies in the earlier times. Presently, it forms a part of all the community celebrations, such as Poanglem, a three-day festival preceding the harvest season. There are dramatic costumes of the traditional Naga warrior and finery of womenfolk.
Odisha
Ghumura Dance
Ghumura Dance (or Ghumra Dance) is one of the most sought and leading folk dance form in Odisha. It is classified as folk dance as the dress code of Ghumura resembles more like a tribal dance, but recent researchers argue different mudra and dance form present in Ghumura bear more resemblance with other classical dance form of India. The timeline of Ghumura dance is not clear. Many researchers claim it was a War dance in ancient India and used by Ravana in Ramayana. Ghumura dance is depicted in Sun Temple of Konark confirming this dance form is since the medieval period. In the 'Madhya Parba" of "Sarala Mhabharata" Ghumura has been mentioned as: Dhola Madala Gadi je Ghumura Bajai Ghumura je Ghumu Ghumu Hoi Garajai In Chandi Purana mentions: Biratwara Biradhola Daundi Ghumura Kadamardala Bajanti Mari Galatura
Ruk Mar Nacha (& Chhau dance)
Chau dance is originated and performed in the Mayurbhanj District and Nilagi region of Baleswar district of Odisha. it has its base in the martial arts tradition. The dance is a stylized mock battle in which two groups of dancers armed with swords and shields, alternatively attack and defend themselves with vigorous movements and elegant stances. Especially notable is the accompanying music, noted for its rhythmic complexities and vigorous percussion. The instruments include 'Mahuri' - a double reeded instrument, 'Dhola' - a barrel shaped two-sided drum, 'Dhumsa' - a hemispherical drum and 'Chadchadi' - a short cylindrical drum.
Goti Pua
The goti puas are boy dancers who dress up as girls. They are students of the akhadas, or gymnasia, established by Ramachandradeva in Puri, in the periphery of the temple. As they were offshoots of the akhada system, goti puas also came to be known as akhada pilas - boys attached to akhadas. Another reason often given to justify the emergence of the goti pua system is that some followers of the Vaishnava religion disapproved of dancing by women as a pretext for worship - they introduced the practice of dancing by boys dressed as girls. The word goti means 'one', 'single' and pua, 'boy', but the goti puas always dance in pairs. Boys are recruited about the age of six and continue to perform till they are 14, then become teachers of the dance or join drama parties. Goti puas are now part of professional teams, known as dals, each headed by a guru. The boys are trained for about two years, during which, after having imbibed the basic technique, they learn items of dance, ornamental and expressional. l singer.
Nacnī
Female performers who sing and dance professionally in rural areas, accompanied by male ḍhulkī and nagarā drummers.

Odissi
Odissi is one of the eight classical dance forms of India. It originates from the state of Odisha, in eastern India. It is the oldest surviving dance form of India on the basis of archaeological evidences. The classic treatise of Indian dance, Natya Shastra, refers to it as Odra-Magadhi. First century BCE bas-reliefs in the hills of Udaygiri (near Bhubaneshwar) testify to its antiquity. It was suppressed under the British raj but has been reconstructed since India gained independence.
It is particularly distinguished from other classical Indian dance forms by the importance it places upon the tribhangi (literally: three parts break), the independent movement of head, chest and pelvis, and upon the basic square stance known as chauka.
Baagh Naach or Tiger Dance
The Sambalpuri folk dance is performed in Binka and Sonepur of Subarnapur district during the month of chaitra. The male dancer paints his bare body with yellow and black stripes like that of a tiger and attaches a suitable tail. One or more dancers move from house to house and after a crowd gathers the dance begins. The dancers are accompanied by a drummer and a bell player who provides the music. The dance is nothing but acrobatic movement in rhythm. They make hissing sounds while dancing. The tiger dance is also performed in Berhampur during the Thakurani Jatra.
Dalkhai
Though Dusserah is the occasion of Sambalpuri folk dance Dalkhai (it's the most popular folk dance of Odisha), its performance is very common on all other festivals such as Bhaijiuntia, Phagun Puni, Nuakhai, etc. This is mostly danced by young women of Binjhal, Kuda, Mirdha, Sama and some other tribes of SambalpurBalangirSundargarh,BargarhNuapada and Kalahandi districts. During this dance men join them as drummers and musicians. The dance is accompanied by a rich orchestra of folk music played by a number of instruments known as Dhol, Nisan, Tamki, Tasa and Mahuri. However, the dhol player controls the tempo while dancing in front of the girls.
Dhap
This Sambalpuri folk dance is mostly performed by the Kandha tribe of Kosal region. Men of one village dance with women of another village. Usually unmarried boys and girls take part. The dance is performed during marriage ceremony and more often for the sake of recreation.
Ghumra
Sambalpuri folk dance Ghumra is also known as vira-badya of the Odisha region. It was used during war to encourage soldiers. It is also used to give social message like forestation, saving girls, literacy, etc. It uses a typical drum: just like a big pitcher with a long stem made of clay. The mouth is covered with the skin of a godhi (a reptile). When played with both hands, it produces a peculiar sound quite different from other drums.
Karma Naach
Karam or Karma literally means 'fate' in Kosli (Sambalpuri language). This pastoral Sambalpuri folk dance is performed during the worship of the god or goddess of fate (Karam Devta or Karamsani Devi), whom the people consider the cause of good and bad fortune. It begins from Bhadra Shukla Ekadasi (eleventh day of the full moon of the month of Bhadra) and lasts for several days.
Keisabadi
Only men can take part in this form of the Sambalpuri folk dance. Some of them hold a stick two feet long. They dance in different forms by striking the sticks according to the rhythms of the song they sing. The leader sings first and others follow him. They sing in Kosli and in every stanza they shout "Haido". The main theme of the song is derived from the love story of Radha and Krishna.
Puducherry
Garadi
The famous dance of Puducherry is believed to have a purely mythological origin. As the legend goes, when Rama - the epic hero of Ramayana defeated Ravana then the vanars (monkeys) performed this dance to celebrate his victory. Garadi is performed during all festivals and usually continues for five to eight hours. The dancers are disguised as 'vanars' and carry sticks in their hands as they dance to the beat of two big drums, called ' Ramadolus'. A distinctive feature of this dance is the iron rings called 'anjali' which dancers wear on their legs - ten on each leg. As the dancer proceeds, these rings produce a melodious sound.
Punjab
Bhangra
The dance known as Bhangra is one of Punjab's most popular dances and the name of the music style. Bhangra is done with classic style Punjabi dresses, and with instruments including a Dhol, Chimta, Algoza etc. It was originally danced during the harvest season, but now is a popular form of celebration at any time such as weddings and festivals. Bhangra is a very popular style of music and dance in Punjab, but is also very popular in the diaspora, specifically in Canada and the U.K. where many Bhangra competitions are now held. Creating Bhangra teams has become very popular and influential with teenagers.It is a mixture of many steps like dhamaal, jutti, Fulka, Sialkoti, Dankare, Jugni, Mirzi, Fumnian.Other folk dance of Punjab like Jhummar, Sammi, are included in Bhangra.
Giddha
The counterpart to male bhangra, giddha is a female folk dance from Punjab. It is an energetic dance derived from ancient ring dancing that highlights feminine grace and elasticity. It is often accompanied by singing folk couplets known as bolliyan
Malwai Giddha
It is a form of Giddha in which only male members participates.
Rajasthan
Ghoomar
Ghoomar is a traditional women's folk dance of Rajasthan which was developed by the Bhil tribe of Mewar zone and was adopted by other Rajasthani communities. "NAACHATO RAJASTHAN" is the group of the artist performing it since last 5 years. It is performed by groups of women in swirling robes accompanied by men and women singing together. This folk dance gets its name from ‘ghoomna’, the pirouetting which displays the spectacular colors of the flowing ‘ghaghara’, the long skirt of the Rajasthani women. There is an amazing grace as the skirt flair slowly while the women twirl in circles, their faces covered with the help of the veil. They dance in measured steps and graceful inclinations of body, beating palms or snapping fingers at particular cadences, while singing some lilting songs.
Kalbelia
Kalbelia dance is performed by Naachato Rajasthan the women's group of the Kalbelia community of Rajasthan. The main occupation of the community is catching snakes and trading snake venom. Hence, the dance movements and the costumes bear resemblance to that of the serpents. Dancers attired in traditional black swirling skirts sway sinuously to the plaintive notes of the 'been' — the wooden instrument of the snake charmers.
Bhavai
Bhavai is an important dance form originated in Rajasthan. Bhavai is partly entertainment and partly a ritual offering to Goddess Amba, the presiding deity of Bhavai. In the courtyard of the Ambaji temple near Mount Abu, the Navratri festival is celebrated with bhavai performances.
Bhavai according to some scholars is made up of two words: bhava means universe and aai is mother; together it means mother of the universe, Amba.
Subtle social criticism laced with pungent humour is the specialty of bhavai. The pompous and incongruous behaviour of high caste people is scoffed at in bhavai. Probably the anger over injustice suffered by the originator of bhavai, Asaita Thakar, permeated the art of bhavai. Some of the bhavai plays present a scathing review of the caste-ridden social structure. People belonging to all levels of social strata are portrayed in bhavai.
Kachchhi Ghodi
Ghodi and Kachhi Gori, is an Indian folk dance that originates from the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan. Dancers wear novelty horse costumes and participate in mock fights while a singer narrates folk tales about local bandits. It is commonly performed during wedding ceremonies to welcome and entertain the bridegroom’s party, and during other social settings.
Sikkim
Singhi Chham
Singhi Chham is a masked dance of Sikkim, depicting snow lion - the cultural symbol of the state. (Snow lion was decreed the guardian deity of the people of Sikkim by Guru Padamsambhava). The third highest mountain in the world - Kanchenjunga(Khang-Chen Dzong Pa), standing sentinel over the state of Sikkim, is believed to resemble the legendary snow lion. The natives display their cultural symbol by dressing up in furry costumes and performing this majestic masked dance.
Tamil Nadu
Bharatanatyam
This is a classical Indian dance form is popular and nurtured in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. This dance form denotes various 19th and 20th century reconstructions of Sadir, the art of temple dancers called Devadasis. Sadir in turn, is derived from ancient dance in the treatise Natya Shastra by Bharata of fourth or third century BCE. A possible origin of the name is from Bharata Muni, who wrote the Natya Shastra to which Bharathanatyam owes many of its ideas. This etymology also holds up to scrutiny better since Bharathanatyam is pronounced with short (kuril) forms of "bha", "ra" and "tha" whereas each of "bhavam", "ragam" and "talam" contain the long (nedil) forms. Hence the initialization proposed above is more probably a backronym. Bharatanatyam is a reworked dance-form from the traditional "sadir" known for its grace, purity, tenderness, and sculpturesque poses.
Kamandi or Kaman Pandigai
This is celebrated to commemorate the puranic event when Manmada the God of Love was burnt to ashes by Siva in anger. The villagers separate themselves into two parties as Erintha katchi and Eriyatha katchi and a heated debate ensues. Kaman and Rathi, his consort, are main characters.
Devarattam
Devarattam or 'the dance of the gods' is the dance of the Kambala Naikar community of Tamil Nadu, who believe that they are the direct descendants of the 'devas' or gods. Fast and fluent movements to the rhythmic sound of ' Deva Thunthubi' - a drum-shaped percussion instrument, make this dance truly enjoyable. The dance is performed during festivals, marriages and other social occasions.
Kummi
The womenfolk of Tamil Nadu have three closely related dances, which can be performed at any time but are seen at their best during festivities. The simplest of these is theKummi, in which the dancers gather in a circle and clap their hands as they dance. As an extension to this is the Kolattam, where instead of clapping, the participants hold small wooden rods in their hands and strike these in rhythm as they dance.
Kolattam
Kolattam is an ancient village art. This is mentioned in Kanchipuram as 'Cheivaikiyar Kolattam', which proves its antiquity. This is performed by women only, with two sticks held in each hand, beaten to make a rhythmic sound. Pinnal Kolattam is danced with ropes which the women hold in their hands, the other of which are tied to a tall pole. With planned steps, the women skip over each other, which forms intricate lace-like patterns in the ropes. As coloured ropes are used, this lace looks extremely attractive. Again, they unravel this lace reversing the dance steps. This is performed for ten days, starting with the Amavasi or Newmoon night after Deepavali.
Karagattam or Karagam
Folk dance of Tamil country, the villagers perform this dance in praise of the rain goddess "Mari Amman". In this dance, the performers balance the water pot on their head very beautifully. Traditionally, this dance is performed in two types - Aatta Karagam is danced with decorated pots on the head and symbolizes joy and happiness, while the Sakthi Karagam is performed only in temples and is mainly danced for entertainment. Earlier it was performed only with the accompaniment of the Naiyandi Melam, but now it also includes songs. Most expert artistes are from the regions of Thanjavur, Pudukottai, Ramanathapuram, Madurai, Tirunelveli, and Pattukottai and Salem.
Mayil Attam or Peacock dance
This is done by girls dressed as peacocks, resplendent with peacock feathers and a glittering head-dress complete with a beak. This beak can be opened and closed with the help of a thread tied to it, and manipulated from within dress. Other similar dances are, Kaalai Attam (dressed as a bull), Karadi Attam (dressed as a bear) and Aali Aattam (dressed as a demon) which are performed in the villages during village get-togethers. Vedala Aattam is performed wearing a mask depicting demons.
Paampu attam or Snake Dance
Paampu attam is yet another typical speciality of the southern region is the snake-dance which arises from the popularity of the snake as a protective divinity, safeguarding the health and happiness of the rural folk. Usually danced by young girls dressed in a tight-fighting costume designed like the snake-skin. The dancer simulates the movements of the snake, writhing and creeping, at times making quick biting movements with head and hands. The raised hands held together look like the hood of a snake.
Telangana
Perini Sivatandavam or Perini Thandavam
                                 is an ancient dance form from Telangana which has been revived in recent times.It originated and prospered in Telanganaduring the Kakatiya dynasty. The Perini Thandavam is a dance form usually performed by males. It is called 'Dance of Warriors'. Warriors before leaving to the battlefield enact this dance before the idol of Lord Siva. The dance form, Perini, reached its pinnacle during the rule of the 'Kakatiyas' who established their dynasty at Warangal and ruled for almost two centuries.It is believed that this dance form invokes 'Prerana' (inspiration) and is dedicated to supreme dancer, Lord Siva.
Bonalu The folk festival of Bonalu in the Telangana region brings with it celebrations which see the colourfully dressed female dancers balancing pots (Bonalu), step to the rhythmic beats and tunes in praise of the village deity Mahankali. Male dancers called Potharajus precede the female dancers to the temple lashing whips and neem leaves adding colour to the festivity.

Tripura
Hojagiri
Hojagiri is a reflection of the age-old culture and the unique style of dance of the Reang community of Tripura. Only lower half of the body is moved to create rhythmic movements. Dancers performing unusually amazing acrobatic feats is the main highlight of the dance. Reang girls twist and turn and dance in time to the compelling rhythm, sometimes dancing on an earthen pitcher or balancing a bottle on the head with a lighted lamp on top of it.
West Bengal
Gambhira
The folk dance/theater of Gambhira originated among the Hindu community of Maldah in West Bengal. After Partition of IndiaChapai Nawabganj in Rajshahi became the main center of Gambhira. With time, Gambhira has undergone many changes in terms of theme and style of its presentation. Muslims also became the custodian of the dance, and thereby it became an integral part of their culture. May be for that reason the dancer now wears the Lungi. Gambhira comprises a few characters with dialogues in an atmosphere of music, its themes now being contemporary social problems, fakeness and selfishness of people and so on.
Kalikapatadi
The main story of this Bengali dance form is 'how Shiva calms down angry Kali after killing Asura. It is more prevalent in Howrah. Before the coronation of Shiva on Neelpuja Day (Chaitra Sankranti), the performance of this dance is a must. The green leaves of water hyacinth is used to make the hair of Kali and the black ash of Ganja to decorate the body. Clay mask is used for Mahadeva. Palm leaves reddened with Alta is used as the tongue of Kali. Participants go on fast for the whole day. The dance is being performed for nearly five-hundred years.
Nacnī
Female performers who sing and dance professionally in rural areas, accompanied by male ḍhulkī and nagarā drummers.
Alkap is a rural performance, popular in many places of Bengal, especially in RajshahiMaldah and Murshidabad districts, and the Rajmahal Hills in the state of Jharkhand. This is associated with the Gajan Festival of Shiva around the middle of April. The beginning of this form was in the late nineteenth century. It has no written script, but scenarios based on popular love stories, which the actors elaborate with extreme dialogues, breaking up for songs, dances and comic or satirical sketches called Kap. It is a composite performance comprising acting, dancing, singing and recitation. Each Alkap group consists of ten to twelve dancers, under the leadership of a 'Sorkar' or 'Guru'. The group includes two or three 'Chhokras', one or two lead singers called 'Gayen' or 'Gayok'. Also, there remain 'Dohars', the chorus called 'Gayokdol' and instrumentalists called 'Bajnadars'. Alkap performances take place at night on an open stage.
Domni

Domni belongs to Maldah in West Bengal. A Domni performance starts with a Vandana dedicated to God. Then the 'Mool Gayen' (Lead Character/Protagonist) and 'Chhokras' (Supporting Characters) offer devotional prayers. The dance performances of the Chhokras are called 'Nachari' or 'Lachari'. The main characters are the roles of husbands, wives, mothers, greedy moneylenders, peasant- girls and so on. The plays are composed taking extracts from small events of everyday life and are presented in a satirical manner. The musical instruments are HarmoniumDholakKartalFlute and so on. Domni groups are found in Maldah. With change on social life and popular taste/culture, this folk form is becoming extinct.
RRB - 2016 Indian Dance For All Competitive Exams RRB - 2016 Indian Dance For All Competitive Exams  Reviewed by Mani Babu on 14:48:00 Rating: 5
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