Railway Exam-2016: Geography Short Notes Latitudes and Longitudes

Latitudes and Longitudes
Latitude (shown as a horizontal Line) is the angular distance in degrees, minutes, and seconds of a Point North or South of the equator. Lines of Latitudes are often referred to as parallels.
Longitude (shown as a restical line) is the angular distance in degrees, nineties and seconds of a point East or West of the Prime (Greenwich) Meridian. Lines of Longitude are often referred to as meridians.
• Relative Location of a city or destination on the planet isits relationship to another place or nearby landmarks.
Absolute location is the definitive location of a place using a recognised coordinate system.
Earth Latitude
Imaginary lines drawn parallel to equator, mean head as an angle whose apex is at the center of the Earth.
• The equator represents 0° latitude, while the North Pole is 90° and the South pole 90°S.
23½°N represents Tropic of Cancer while 23½° S, represent tropic of Capricorn.
66½° N, represents Arctic circle while 66½° S, represent Antantic Circle.

• There are told 181 latitudes including the equator.
• The circle becomes smaller to waves the poles. Equator is he ‘greatest circle’that can be drawn on the earth’s surface.
The North and South pole are fixed points.
• The distance between any two parallel of latitude is always equal.
Earth Longitude
• It is the angular distance measured from the center of the Earth. They are also called meridians.
The distance between any two meridians is not equal. At the equator, 1 degree 111 km or 69 statute miles. At 30° N or S, it is 965 km. It goes on decreasing this way until it is zero at the poles.
There are 360 meridians of longitude the prime meridian is a longitudeof0, passing throughtheGreenwich nearLondon.
This meridian is taken by geographers to divide the Earth into the eastern and western hemispheres.
• Each meridian of Longitude is a semi-circle 180° meridian (international date line) lies exactly opposite to meridian.Such points are called Antipool points.
Places that are on the same meridian have the same local (Sun) time.
Since the earth makes one complete revolution of 360° in 24 hours, it passesthrough 15° cm one own or 1°is 4 minutes.
The Earth rotates from West to East, hence places east of Greenwich see the Sun earlier and gain time whereas places West of Greenwich see the Sun later and lose time.
In India, whose longitudinal extent is approximately 30°, has adopted one time zone, selecting the 82.5 °E for the standard time which is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of GMT (Greenwich Mean Time).
Local Time: Local time of any place is 12 noon when the Sun is exactly overhead. It will vary from the Greenwich line at the rates of four minutes for each degree of Longitude.
Standard Time: It is the uniform time fixed by each country. It is fixed in the relation mean time of a certain meridian which generally passes through it.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT): The line at 0° longitude is called Greenwich Mean Time. It is based on local time of the meridian passing through Greenwich near London.
• Indian Standard Time: It is fixed on the mean of 82°30°E. Meridian, a place near Allahabad. It is 5½ hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.
International Date Line: It is the 180° meridian running over the Pacific Ocean, deviating at Aleutian Islands, Fizi, Samoa and Gilbert Islands. Travelers crossing the date line from West to East (Japan to USA) repeat a day and trarellers crossing it from East to West (USA to Japan) lose a day.
Solstice and Equinoxes
Solstice means the “standing still of the Sun and equinox means mid nights. The earth spins around its axis, an imaginary line going night through the planet between the North and the South pole. The axe is tilted 23.5 degrees causes the gone seasons.
June solstice (approximately June 20-21). This day begins summer in the Northern hemisphere and winter in the Southern hemisphere. This day is the Longest in the year. In the Northern Hemisphere and shortest. In the Southern hemisphere. On this day, the Sun is directly overhead the tropic of Cancer (23.5 degree at moon).
• September Equinox (approximately September 22- 23): This dry begins fall in the Northern emisphere and spring in the Southern hemisphere. There are 12 hours of dry light and 12 hours of darkness at all points on the Earth’s surface on the two equinoxes. Sunrise is at 60 m. and sunset is at 6 pm.
December Solstice (Approximately December 21-22): This dry begins summer in the Southern hemisphere and is the longest dry in the Southern hemisphere. It begins winter day in Northern emisphere and is the shortest day of the year in the Northern hemisphere. The Sun is directly overhead the Tropic of capricorn on the December.
March Equinox (Approximately March 21-21): Spring solstice equinox this day begins tell in the Southern hemisphere and spring in the Norther hemisphere. There are 12 hours of day light and 12 hours of darkness at all the points on the Earth’s surface on the two equinoxes. Sunrise is at 6 a.m. and Sunset is at 6 pm. local (so far) time zone most points on the Earth’s surface.

Eclipses
When the light of the Sun or the Moon is blocked by another body, the sun or Moon is said to be in eclipse. The Sun, Earth and Moon are in a straight line Eclipses of the Sun is a solar eclipse and the Moon is a inner eclipse.
Solar Eclipse: It is caused when the moon Revolving around the Earth comes in between the Earth and the Sun, thus making a part or whole of the sun invisible from a particular part of the Earth thus, the eclipse can be partial or complete. It occurs during the day
 Railway Exam-2016: Geography Short Notes Solar Eclipses

Type of Solar Eclipses
Total Eclipse: Occurs when the Sun is completely obscured from rich. Instead, the Sun intense light is replaced by dark silhouette of the Moon that is outlined by the Sun’s corona (the super heated plasma extending out from the Sun.
• Annular Eclipse: Occurs when the Sun and Moon are exactly in line but Moon appears smaller than the Sun. During on annular eclipse, the Sun appears as a bright ring around the Moon.
Partial Eclipse: Occurs when the Sun and Moon are not  completely aligned and the Sun is partially obscured.
Hybrid Eclipse: is a combination of total and annular eclipse that takes place when a total eclipse changes to an annular eclipse or vice-versa along different sections of the eclipse’s path.

• Lunar Eclipse
 Railway Exam-2016: Geography Short Notes Lunar Eclipse
When the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun, the shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon results in a lunar eclipse. It is occur at night.
Railway Exam-2016: Geography Short Notes Part-2 Reviewed by GK Adda on 08:39:00 Rating: 5