DATA DETERMINATION OF COMPUTERS

                                 Basic Data Structures
The Computer data,whatever it may represent is made of  data,whatever it may represent is made of certain components basically called’ bit’s and  ‘bytes’.Following are the explanations of these basic components which are the explanations of these basic  components which constitute the data structures
                Bit:A Bit (Some times abbreviated as b )is the most basic information unit used in computing and information theory.A single bit is a one or a zero,a true or a false,a flag which is no or off in general the quantity of information required to distinguish two mutually exclusive  states from each other
                Nibble: A Nibble is the computing term for the aggregationof four bits,or half an octer(an octer being an 8-byte) As nibble contains four bits,there are sixteen possible values,so a nibble corresponding to a single hexademical digit.
                Byte: A Byte ia collection of bits, originally variable is size butnow almost always eight  byte. Eight bit-bytes also as Octers , can represent 256 values
                Byte is most often abbreviated as ‘B’ hence ‘MB’ for Mega Byte
                Kilobyte: A Kilobyte is a unit of computer storage equal to 1024 bytes.it is commonly abbreviated as KB, KB, or Kbyte.
                The term killobyte was first loosely used for a value of 1024 bytes(2) because 2 is roughly one thousand and powers of two are convenient for use with binary digital computers
Megabyte: A megabyte is unit of information or Computer storage equal to approximately
One million bytes it is commonly abbervated as MB
                One mega byte (MB) = 1024 killo bytes
Gigabyte: A Gigabyte is a unit of information or Computer storage equal to approximately
One billion bytes .It is abbervated as GB in writing and gig in writing speech
                One Giga byte (Giga byte) = 1024 mega bytes
                Terabyte: A terabyte is a unit of or Computer storage equal to approximately one trillion bytes.it is commonly abbreviated as TB.
                One terabyte (TB=1024 Gigabytes.
                Note: After terabytes, the counting doesdn`t stop there.it continues as follow:
·         One petabyte(PB)=1024 Terrabytes
·         One exabyte(EB)1024 Petabytes
·         One Zettabyte(ZB) =1024 Exabyte
·         One yottabyte (YB) =1024Zettabyte

Data Determination

Unit
Size
Description
Bit
One binary digit
Store eighter a binary 0to1
Byte
Eight bits
one character
Word
16 to 64 bits
one character
Kilobyte(KB)
1 Thousand bytes
About one page of double-
spaced text
Megabyte
1 Million bytes
About the size of on short book
Gigabyte
1 billion  bytes
1000 Short books
Terrabyte
1 trillion bytes
An entire library
Petabyte
1 quadrillionbytes
just about all the librariesi in the
.
US


Data Representation and Binary System Decimal Numeral System
                A decimal usually refers to the base 10 numeral system. Decimal notation is the writing of numbers is the base 10numeral system,which uses various symbols for ten district quantities(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9 called digits) to represent numbers.These digits are frequently used with a decimal point which indicates the start of a fractional part,and with one of the sign symbols+(plus) or – (minus) to indicate sign.
                The decimal system is a positional numeral system:it has positions for units,ten thousands,etc.
The position of each digit conveys what multiplier is to be used with that digit.
                Decimal is the most common numeral system used around the world.

Binary Numeral System
          The binary numeral system represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1.owing to its relatively straight forward implementation in electronic circuitry,the binary system is used internally By virtually all modern computers.
Octal numeral system
          Octal numeral system is the base-8 numbers system and uses the digits 0 to 7.
                Octal numerals can be made form binary numerals by grouping consecutive digits into groups of three (starting from the right).for example,the binary representation for decimal 74 is 1001010 which groups into 1001010 – so the octal representation is 112.
Octal
Binary
0
000
1
001
2
010
3
011
4
100
5
101
6
100
7
111
Hexadecimal Numeral System:
                       In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, or simply-hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0-9 and A-F.  the current hexadecimal system was first introduced to the computing world in 1963 by IBM. An earlier version, using the digits 0-9 and U-Z, was used by the Bendix G-15 computer, introduced in 1956.
    For example, the decimal number 79 whose binary representation is 01001111 can be written as 4F in hexadecimal (4= 0100 F = 1111).
This is about the brief explain about the Basic Data Structures. 
DATA DETERMINATION OF COMPUTERS DATA DETERMINATION OF COMPUTERS Reviewed by Honey on 17:08:00 Rating: 5

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