DATA DETERMINATION OF COMPUTERS
Basic Data
Structures
The Computer data,whatever it may represent is made of data,whatever it may represent is made of
certain components basically called’ bit’s and
‘bytes’.Following are the explanations of these basic components which
are the explanations of these basic
components which constitute the data structures
Bit:A
Bit (Some times abbreviated as b )is the most basic information unit used in
computing and information theory.A single bit is a one or a zero,a true or a
false,a flag which is no or off in general the quantity of information required
to distinguish two mutually exclusive states from each other
Nibble:
A Nibble is the computing term for the aggregationof four bits,or half an
octer(an octer being an 8byte) As nibble contains four bits,there are sixteen possible
values,so a nibble corresponding to a single hexademical digit.
Byte:
A Byte ia collection of bits, originally variable is size butnow almost
always eight byte. Eight bitbytes also
as Octers , can represent 256 values
Byte is
most often abbreviated as ‘B’ hence ‘MB’ for Mega Byte
Kilobyte:
A Kilobyte is a unit of computer storage equal to 1024 bytes.it is commonly
abbreviated as KB, KB, or Kbyte.
The
term killobyte was first loosely used for a value of 1024 bytes(2) because 2 is
roughly one thousand and powers of two are convenient for use with binary
digital computers
Megabyte: A megabyte is unit
of information or Computer storage equal to approximately
One million bytes it is commonly abbervated as MB
One
mega byte (MB) = 1024 killo bytes
Gigabyte: A Gigabyte is a
unit of information or Computer storage equal to approximately
One billion bytes .It is abbervated as GB in writing and gig
in writing speech
One Giga
byte (Giga byte) = 1024 mega bytes
Terabyte:
A terabyte is a unit of or Computer storage equal to approximately one trillion
bytes.it is commonly abbreviated as TB.
One
terabyte (TB=1024 Gigabytes.
Note: After
terabytes, the counting doesdn`t stop there.it continues as follow:
·
One petabyte(PB)=1024 Terrabytes
·
One exabyte(EB)1024 Petabytes
·
One Zettabyte(ZB) =1024 Exabyte
·
One yottabyte (YB) =1024Zettabyte
Data Determination
Unit

Size

Description

Bit

One binary
digit

Store eighter
a binary 0to1

Byte

Eight bits

one character

Word

16 to 64 bits

one character

Kilobyte(KB)

1 Thousand
bytes

About one page
of double

spaced text


Megabyte

1 Million
bytes

About the size
of on short book

Gigabyte

1 billion bytes

1000 Short
books

Terrabyte

1 trillion
bytes

An entire
library

Petabyte

1
quadrillionbytes

just about all
the librariesi in the

.

US

Data Representation and Binary System Decimal Numeral System
A
decimal usually refers to the base 10 numeral system. Decimal notation is the
writing of numbers is the base 10numeral system,which uses various symbols for
ten district quantities(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9 called digits) to represent
numbers.These digits are frequently used with a decimal point which indicates
the start of a fractional part,and with one of the sign symbols+(plus) or –
(minus) to indicate sign.
The
decimal system is a positional numeral system:it has positions for units,ten
thousands,etc.
The position of each digit
conveys what multiplier is to be used with that digit.
Decimal
is the most common numeral system used around the world.
Binary Numeral System
The
binary numeral system represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0
and 1.owing to its relatively straight forward implementation in electronic
circuitry,the binary system is used internally By virtually all modern
computers.
Octal numeral system
Octal
numeral system is the base8 numbers system and uses the digits 0 to 7.
Octal
numerals can be made form binary numerals by grouping consecutive digits into
groups of three (starting from the right).for example,the binary representation
for decimal 74 is 1001010 which groups into 1001010 – so the octal
representation is 112.
Octal

Binary

0

000

1

001

2

010

3

011

4

100

5

101

6

100

7

111

Hexadecimal Numeral System:
In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, or simplyhex, is a
numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols
09 and AF. the current hexadecimal
system was first introduced to the computing world in 1963 by IBM. An earlier
version, using the digits 09 and UZ, was used by the Bendix G15 computer,
introduced in 1956.
For example, the
decimal number 79 whose binary representation is 01001111 can be written as 4F
in hexadecimal (4= 0100 F = 1111).
This is about the brief explain
about the Basic Data Structures.
DATA DETERMINATION OF COMPUTERS
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Mani Babu
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