Basic Data Structures
The Computer data,whatever it may represent is made of  data,whatever it may represent is made of certain components basically called’ bit’s and  ‘bytes’.Following are the explanations of these basic components which are the explanations of these basic  components which constitute the data structures
Bit:A Bit (Some times abbreviated as b )is the most basic information unit used in computing and information theory.A single bit is a one or a zero,a true or a false,a flag which is no or off in general the quantity of information required to distinguish two mutually exclusive  states from each other
Nibble: A Nibble is the computing term for the aggregationof four bits,or half an octer(an octer being an 8-byte) As nibble contains four bits,there are sixteen possible values,so a nibble corresponding to a single hexademical digit.
Byte: A Byte ia collection of bits, originally variable is size butnow almost always eight  byte. Eight bit-bytes also as Octers , can represent 256 values
Byte is most often abbreviated as ‘B’ hence ‘MB’ for Mega Byte
Kilobyte: A Kilobyte is a unit of computer storage equal to 1024 bytes.it is commonly abbreviated as KB, KB, or Kbyte.
The term killobyte was first loosely used for a value of 1024 bytes(2) because 2 is roughly one thousand and powers of two are convenient for use with binary digital computers
Megabyte: A megabyte is unit of information or Computer storage equal to approximately
One million bytes it is commonly abbervated as MB
One mega byte (MB) = 1024 killo bytes
Gigabyte: A Gigabyte is a unit of information or Computer storage equal to approximately
One billion bytes .It is abbervated as GB in writing and gig in writing speech
One Giga byte (Giga byte) = 1024 mega bytes
Terabyte: A terabyte is a unit of or Computer storage equal to approximately one trillion bytes.it is commonly abbreviated as TB.
One terabyte (TB=1024 Gigabytes.
Note: After terabytes, the counting doesdn`t stop there.it continues as follow:
·         One petabyte(PB)=1024 Terrabytes
·         One exabyte(EB)1024 Petabytes
·         One Zettabyte(ZB) =1024 Exabyte
·         One yottabyte (YB) =1024Zettabyte

Data Determination

 Unit Size Description Bit One binary digit Store eighter a binary 0to1 Byte Eight bits one character Word 16 to 64 bits one character Kilobyte(KB) 1 Thousand bytes About one page of double- spaced text Megabyte 1 Million bytes About the size of on short book Gigabyte 1 billion  bytes 1000 Short books Terrabyte 1 trillion bytes An entire library Petabyte 1 quadrillionbytes just about all the librariesi in the . US

Data Representation and Binary System Decimal Numeral System
A decimal usually refers to the base 10 numeral system. Decimal notation is the writing of numbers is the base 10numeral system,which uses various symbols for ten district quantities(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9 called digits) to represent numbers.These digits are frequently used with a decimal point which indicates the start of a fractional part,and with one of the sign symbols+(plus) or – (minus) to indicate sign.
The decimal system is a positional numeral system:it has positions for units,ten thousands,etc.
The position of each digit conveys what multiplier is to be used with that digit.
Decimal is the most common numeral system used around the world.

Binary Numeral System
The binary numeral system represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1.owing to its relatively straight forward implementation in electronic circuitry,the binary system is used internally By virtually all modern computers.
Octal numeral system
Octal numeral system is the base-8 numbers system and uses the digits 0 to 7.
Octal numerals can be made form binary numerals by grouping consecutive digits into groups of three (starting from the right).for example,the binary representation for decimal 74 is 1001010 which groups into 1001010 – so the octal representation is 112.
 Octal Binary 0 000 1 001 2 010 3 011 4 100 5 101 6 100 7 111